Reporting back from the field: Okavango 2019

After a successful field visit in the Okavango delta, students report back on their activities.  In this post, we have Anna Nohre, a MSc Water: Science and Governance student writing about her experience.

At the beginning of July I was fortunate to partake in a Kings College London field trip to the Okavango Delta in Botswana. The Delta is a unique wetland environment that is habitat to a range of incredible animals and plants, which KCL is examining in association with the PLuS Alliance colleagues from University of New South Wales and Arizona State University .

Our group included staff and students from all three universities. A few days in Maun, on the edge of the delta, allowed time for team building, learning accurate surveying techniques, and studying the physical environment of the delta. I especially valued University of Botswana’s Dr Mike Murray-Hudson giving us a talk on the eco hydrological flows that create the delta environment. The annual flood of the delta is imperative to its health, as sediment and nutrients are transported and deposited across the plain. Thus disruption to the flow upstream in Angola or Namibia could have detrimental effects to the delta downstream. This insight gave me a better appreciation for the unique, but potentially fragile environment we were visiting.

The flight to our base camp in the Abu concession of the Okavango Delta was spectacular. We flew low at only one thousand feet and were able to see elephants and hippos at certain points. I was excited to finally be in the delta, seeing impala, warthogs, vultures, vervet monkeys and baboons on the short drive from the airstrip to camp.

Over the next few days we completed surveys of mammals, birds, and plant life, taking care to accurately digitise the results each day that will also help build up a body of knowledge for students and researchers of PLuSAlliance and at base camp. The surveys also gave me the opportunity to learn how to identify species, and by the end of the week it was satisfying to name numerous types of birds and antelope without consulting identification books.

Students working together for transect measurements and a Little Bee Eater being spotted

Certain birds such as the Little Bee Eater, African Fish Eagle, Lilac Breasted Roller, and the Fork-tailed Drongo were easily recognisable by their distinct features. While similar looking species of starlings were harder to differentiate, leading to some amusing mnemonics.

The trip was a treasure trove of information and has been highly informative for my dissertation. I made field observations throughout the week, including lecture notes on relevant topics. Furthermore, I was able to conduct interviews with water management experts who study the Okavango that will be my primary methodology within my project which focuses on application of the problem-shed concept to water management within the Okavango River basin.

A male leopard and distinct leopard footprints left around camp

It was amazing being so close to delta wildlife, even whilst in camp a highlight was one slightly nervous night when some elephants spent a few hours shaking nuts from the trees above our tent. Similarly waking up and discovering leopard tracks nearby was both disconcerting and exhilarating. We were lucky enough to also see a leopard later in the week.

Safe to say I will never have another experience quite like it, and I am so thankful to all the professors who shared their expertise and enthusiasm for their subjects, as well as all the staff at the Elephants without Borders camp who hosted us.



Blog post series from the Okavango delta

As a second entry to our series of blog posts following the staff/student field trip to understanding the complex sustainability challenges of the Okavango delta, we have a student profile by Heather this week.  This trip is a joint project of the PLuS Alliance with University of New South Wales and Arizona State University.


Into the Okavango Delta by Heather Needham

I am a first-year undergraduate student currently studying BSc Geography at King’s. During my first year at university, I have found studying modules themed around biodiversity, climate change, hydrology and natural hazards really interesting.

Outside of university, I have recently completed a two-week internship at the Royal Geographical Society, and I represent the Society as a Geography Ambassador.

It is an honour to be awarded a King’s Undergraduate Research Fellowship which gives me the opportunity to travel to the Okavango Delta this month. This will be a new experience for me as it the first time I have flown outside of Europe.  I will be joined by students from the University of Arizona and the University of New South Wales in which we will help preserve this UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In Botswana, I will be exploring the physical and human processes that affect the wetland. This enables me to advocate conservation through the exploration, collection and analysis of data in the Okavango which supports my ambition to protect and conserve natural landscapes. In particular, I will be assisting Michael Chadwick on his research examining the factors that affect the ecosystem services in Botswana. Specifically, I will be investigating how disease affects Botswana spatially.

Even though writing my dissertation is still quite far off, the research trip to Botswana will enable me to understand how to conduct a field research project abroad and what is involved in higher academic research. This will give me the experience and skills I need to fuel my ambition to be the first in my family to obtain a Doctoral Degree.



Okavango 2019: Exploring the unique delta

For the third year running, we’re off to the Okavango delta in Botswana as part of a river sustainability project funded by the PLuS Alliance.  With a group of staff and students from King’s, as well as fellow colleagues from University of New South Wales and University of Arizona, we will look at the socio-ecological challenges and opportunities of this unique river basin.

Daniel Ramsay tells us what he is looking forward to during this trip:

I am a master’s student currently studying MSc Environmental monitoring, modelling and management with a three-year background in studying BSc Geography, which has led to specific interests in exploring substantial environmental change over time using remote sensing analysis and the impacts future climate projections have on these landscapes.

I have further developed my skills within these fields across several modules King’s has offered this year including monitoring and modelling environmental change, ultimately leading to a drive and passion for further exploring a particular environmental landscape under threat for my dissertation research.

I have previous experience in this study field from research analysis with regards to studying environmental change across the Murray Darling Basin in South Eastern Australia using remote sensing techniques to assess the vast drying of one of Australia’s most crucial ecosystem resources for my undergraduate dissertation.

Using this previous experience motivated me to develop my master’s dissertation, which involves using satellite data to map wetland cover and change while using a hydrological climate model to assess the future changes across the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

I am lucky enough to have the opportunity thanks to King’s Water to travel to the Delta come July 2019, to further develop my understanding of the region first hand while also allowing for the collection of ground truth data which will supplement, support and give an accuracy for my desk-top research. I am hoping this exciting opportunity will provide me with not only great experience in developing my fieldwork skills but the determination in providing valuable research results for the people of Botswana in helping to preserve their one-of-a-kind heritage site

Film screening and workshop: “Our Lives Depend on the River”

Film screening and workshop:

 “Our Lives Depend on the River

Hydropower development and its impact on environment, poverty and conflict dynamics in the Lower Omo, Ethiopia

Monday 3rd June 9am – 3pm

King’s College London,

Bush House (South East Wing), 1.01, London

Communities in Nyangatom, in the Lower Omo region of Ethiopia, have experienced a range of environmental shocks since 2015 including drought, changes in the Omo River flood-regime due to dam developments, and crop pest infestations, which have curtailed crop harvests. These changes are contributing to increased environmental degradation and poverty, reduced food security and increased dependence on government food aid.

During the workshop we will consider how communities can be supported to adapt their livelihoods to cope with changing environmental conditions and to mitigate the impact of lost flood-retreat cultivation livelihoods.

Our findings come from an ERSC-DFID funded study ‘Shifting in/equality dynamics in Ethiopia: from Research to Application (SIDERA)’, an interdisciplinary research project which examined the links between poverty, conflict and environmental degradation in the Omo Valley, and the role of inequality at the core of this nexus.

Register to attend the event at:

Film: “Our Lives Depend on the River”

This film illustrates challenges faced by communities in the Nyangatom district, Ethiopia, including changes to the Omo River, crop pest infestations and invasive plant species.

The film was produced as part of the knowledge exchange component of the SIDERA project, which aims to:

  1. exchange knowledge among diverse stakeholders and different disciplines and fields, e.g. integrating knowledge regarding environmental changes and their implications for poverty, peace, and security
  2. stimulate new thinking/conversations about prevailing and alternative models of development, social inclusion, and profit sharing

During the workshop, we will describe how we set about co-producing, translating and transferring crucial knowledge from local environments, where largely non-literate communities hold vast unused expertise, to the national and international spheres, and vice versa. We will also feed-back on discussions from a series of dissemination workshops carried out in Ethiopia at national, regional and local levels. Finally, we will discuss potential solutions, future directions and policy recommendations.

Film screening and workshop: “Our Lives Depend on the River

Monday 3rd June 9am – 3pm

King’s College London, Bush House (South East Wing), 1.01, London


09:15 – Coffee

09:30 – Introductions:

  • The SIDERA project
  • Challenges facing communities in Nyangatom

09:45 – Key Findings:

  • Environmental Change: How have recent developments affected the spatial and temporal availability of and access to natural resources in the region?
  • Wealth/poverty: How are environmental changes influencing relations of material in/equality?
  • Peace/conflict: How are changing resources affecting conflict dynamics in the region?

11:00 – Coffee

11:30  – Film Screening: Our Lives Depend on the River

12:00 – Breakout Discussion

12:30 – Lunch

13:30 – From Research to Application:

  • Policy recommendations
  • Our approach to translating research into application
  • Ongoing work

14:30 – Reflections

15:00 – End  

King’s Water at the Triennale exhibition on ‘Broken Nature’

King’s Water member, Dr Naho Mirumachi has collaborated with design experts on Wonderwater café, a pop-up event to raise awareness on water sustainability.  Working with leading design consultant, Jane Withers, this pop-up was staged at the Triennale Museum in Milan as part of their ‘Broken Nature’exhibition.  Taking over the museum café, a special water footprint menu was devised to show how much water we eat and drink.  

The menu featured the Italian classic, pizzas, as well as tiramisu, coffee and wine.  Naho was supported by graduating Msc Water: Science and Governancestudent, Arthur Fuest, to develop the menu including calculating the water footprint of dishes.

The lowest water footprint dish on the menu is their vegan pizza marinara al quattro pomodori, demonstrating that a vegetarian diet consumes less water a day than a meat-based diet (in fact, just half at 2600 litres).  

This is Naho’s second collaboration with Wonderwater where previously they curated Leila’s Café in east London (See Guardian coverage).

The Broken Nature exhibition will run till 1 Sept 2019, during which the water footprint menu will be available. 

Microplastics in the Environment: panel discussion

This Friday (1st February) we are very pleased to host a panel discussion on ‘Microplastics in the Environment’. We have invited three panelists with diverse expertise and experience:

(i) Chiara Bancone (Department of Geography, UCL): microplastics in aquatic systems

(ii) Dr Stephanie Wright (MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, KCL): airborne microplastics

(iii) Stav Friedman (MSc Climate Change: Environment, Science And Policy, Department of Geography, KCL): social initiatives and innovative solutions

Each panelist will speak on their topic briefly before we open to the floor for questions and discussion.

Starting @ 17:15 in Bush House North East Wing, room 6.05, with drinks and nibbles to follow.

King’s Water Events – Spring 2019 – Documentary Screening and Book Launch

Water at the Margins (2018)

Documentary screening and discussion

With director Maria Rusca (Uppsala University, Sweden) and story consultant Nathalie Richards (King’s College London, UK)

‘Water at the Margins (2018)’

Drawing on our experience in undertaking a videography project in Maputo, Mozambique, this seminar reflects on the role and potential of this method to capture and visualize inequalities in access to domestic water.

Where? Bush House North East Wing room 6.05

When? Wednesday March 20th 2019, 16.30-17.30

Book launch by Scott Moore, Ph.D. (University of Pennsylvania)

‘Subnational Hydropolitics: Conflict, Cooperation, and Institution-Building in Shared River Basins’

Subnational Hydropolitics re-examines the issue of water conflict by examining conflicts at the subnational rather than international level.

Where?  Bush House North East Wing room 6.05

When? Wednesday May 1st 2019, 17.00-19.00

To find us:

Follow us here: @KingsWaterKCL


Visiting researcher from Switzerland, PhD student Nora Buletti-Mitchell

King’s Water welcomes Nora Buletti, who is joining us from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. She will be collaborating with us and finalising her PhD research on participatory processes for watercourse management in Switzerland. As part of a joint research project with the University of Lausanne, and mandated by the Swiss Government’s Federal Office for the Environment, Nora specifically evaluates the effect of the introduction of subsidies for participation in projects of watercourses management. In collaboration with her colleagues of the research project, she also drafted principles to encourage the practice of participation. In her thesis, she is exploring the theoretical concepts necessary to develop a critical approach to analyse institutionalised public participation, and more precisely the role of experts in these processes. Her PhD project therefore includes two dimensions: an applied one and a theoretically based analysis. Nora principally refers to Foucault’s concept of governmentality to analyse dynamics of exclusion and control within the participatory approaches taking place in specific context of river course management projects.

Nora has been at the University of Fribourg since her Bachelor’s degree in Geography, followed by an Msc in Human Geography. She has also been undertaking supervision and teaching of methodological practical courses in human geography, and been a tutor at the Environmental Sciences section. She chose to come to King’s College London to benefit from inputs from her host Dr. Alex Loftus, as well as other PhD students in the department. Her aim is to consolidate her theoretical framework, exploring advantages and limits, as well as creating long-lasting academic relationships for her academic career.

She is supervised by Prof. Olivier Graefe at the University of Fribourg and Dr. Olivier Ejderyan at ETH Zurich, and is working in close collaboration with Dr. Alex Loftus at King’s College London.


Nora’s three water words:

Institutionalized public participation



Okavango 2018: Field trip in Botswana

King’s Water with colleagues from University of New South Wales and Arizona State University are currently in Botswana undertaking field activities with a PLuS Alliance support project on river sustainability of the Okavango basin.

Check live twitter from the field !

Joining the team this year is Georgia, a 2nd yr King’s Geography student:

“My name is Georgia Edwards, i’m a second year physical geography student. Since finding climate studies to be a highly relevant and diverse topic at A-Level, it has become my main academic focus as it is applicable to so many different fields.

Fieldwork is one of my favourite parts of the discipline, giving freedom to travel whilst demonstrating theory in reality. I have been lucky enough to work around the UK, in Morocco, Spain and now to Botswana.

This King’s Undergraduate Research Fellowship (KURF) is particularly exciting due to participation of academics and likeminded students from the US and Australia. They will lead research and give lectures in the Okavango Delta on different aspects of the environment and its inhabitants. This will allow me to gain more of an academic understanding of conservation and wildlife in the Delta.

Conservation of African wildlife has always been an interest of mine, which only grew after I visited the Meru game park in Kenya. I am hoping to be able to combine conservation and climatic factors into my IGS project. To work on how climate change could affect certain species of animals in the Okavango Delta, bringing a personal interest of mine into an academic field.”


See this video to find out what days in the field are like:

Undertaking research as PhD students in geographical studies of water: Reflexions on Positionality

This in the works blog post brings reflexions together on how to integrate issues of positionality when undertaking geographical research in water issues. This initiative stems from our experiences as young water researchers sharing field work experiences; we question how our (missed) encounters may affect the processes and outcomes of our research and explore the realm of our diverse backgrounds and field sites. Many experiences are shared between researchers on field sites, but rarely make it into papers or reports. We intend this post to encourage an open conversation with young researchers like us seeking to reflect on the impacts of positionalities on research. As qualitative researchers, we explore situations in which our positionalities have first affected access to respondents; how our positionalities affected the types of information we manage to retrieve; if our positionalities affect the way we understand collected data; overall, how would results have differed if the data were collected by a different individual?

Geography is probably not the least self-aware among the disciplines of the methodological and ethical trappings of power relations between the researcher-researched as well as the importance of acknowledging the researcher’s positionality in the field. Feminist Geographers deserve much of the credit for putting the ethical implications of the method in conducting research front and centre. Debates have been given space in journals that explore if a certain form of research, let’s say collaborative ethnography, fosters a less exploitative relation with the informant than quantitative survey-taking (McDowell, 1992; Pile, 1992). Feminist ethnographers, in sharing their intimate experiences of research, problematize this assumption and have highlighted how methodologies committed to a non-hierarchical engagement and the co-production of knowledge can still produce dependency and feelings of betrayal especially as the initial positions of power and privilege can be hard to surmount; as well as sympathetic engagements, be misconstrued as a promise of intervention (Stacey, 1988; Patai, 1991). Different research topics and audiences bring forth different and unique challenges that are beyond the scope of an encompassing methodological or ethical standpoint. Initial power relations in a research can be skewed either ways: Sallie Westwood’s  (1984) research on everyday work lives of female workers in a Midlands hosiery factory is an example among countless others of a privileged researcher position, but Llerena Searle’s (2016) anthropological investigation of the practices and worldviews of international real estate consultants in Gurgaon where her informants were foreign MBA-educated Indian and white males with pay-checks several times higher than her research stipend constitutes an inverted position of power, which is not very uncommon in research. The positionality of the researcher in relation to the informant influences not only her level and ease of access to gaining information, but also strategies and unconscious practices of leveraging privilege. The contradiction within these strategies may burst forth in the open at moments exposing the workings, innocent or manipulative, of actual research practice. An experience from Ananya Roy’s book Calcutta: A Requiem (2002) illustrates such a moment which we present before narrating experiences from our own work.

To the settlement where she had already completed six months of fieldwork in, one day she accompanied a high-ranking party worker going on his rounds. The party worker was with Roy in her chauffeur-driven Ambassador car, a facility that Roy would always park a distance away and hide the fact from her subjects during her fieldwork. The party worker however insisted that they drive in the car to the heart of the settlement. When the crowds gathered around the worker, he introduced Roy: “She is a visitor from America, the richest country in the world, a country on whose aid the entire world survives. She owns a house here in Calcutta and a car. We came here today in her car.” Ananya Roy mentions her mortification given that her ethnographic performance had always been of a shabbily-dressed middle-class Calcutta girl, studying in America but hiding the fact of her hefty research grant. Her experience of feeling like deceiving her subjects ties in with some of the contradictions of our own methodologies, our positionalities and our apprehensions of appropriate conduct against the striving for information for our project.

We share our experiences below and would like to receive other experiences from junior and senior researchers in geography.



My research focuses on Water (Resources) Users Associations in the Great Ruaha river in Tanzania and the Mara river in Kenya. My methods included inter alia participative observation and semi-structured interviews with a very wide range of people, who were socio-economically and culturally diverse. I am a junior white European researcher, who was often accompanied by British and local partners from an international environmental NGO in the field. I first describe a situation in which I felt underpowered due to my youth and being a female, and then contrast this experience by a second scenario where I felt overpowered as a European person, part of the “donor” community.

The spark to dig this conversation emerged from discussions between white British PhD students and post-docs in Tanzania, realising that targeted interviewees were often the same people in the water sector. This is certainly to be expected for elite interviews with professionals in the water sector holding key positions, and eminent local experts/researchers. The intrigue started when I – as a young female PhD student – realised I was not accessing the “elites” my connections/friends were easily interviewing. These connections and friends were also PhD and post-doc students, new to the Tanzanian context, but male. There could be a myriad of reasons for which this situation occurred, some of them coming from the potential interviewer and some of them coming from the potential interviewee. Whatever the reason may be, and whether systematic or not, I started to question myself on how my research would be impacted by not having access to these key interviewees. Is it enough to recognise my positionality and failure to access perspectives offered by these elites? Is this recognition of importance for methodology, or is it a factor to take into account when discussing limitations to my findings? The elite interviews my connections and friends had allowed them to access hydrological data which was not offered to me upon polite, official and subsequently unofficial requests. My connection had described to me the “buddying” he had with one of the academics, based on having drinks at the local pub near the campus. As a young woman, I had come to the pub as well but such “buddying” with a senior male researcher would have been culturally inappropriate. (I had an experience trying to listen to beer hole conversations between pastoralists on the cow market day and gradually realised that all men left, as I was unwelcomed in this space reserved to men).

How can I assess the effects of the bias created by my positionality? The outcome in my case is that I did not access flow and rainfall data for my study basin. This type of experience repeated itself when I requested to hold interviews with the basin water officer and the director of water resources at the ministry of water and irrigation; these were not granted to me, contrarily to my connections. I was finally successful in holding a conversation with the basin water officer when I was in the company of senior male colleagues my partner NGO.

The second power relation trap I found myself in were the expectations from interviewees for a certain type of compensation for the time spent helping me with my research. Having myself been an interviewee in other student’s research projects or professional research, I knew a gesture was always appreciated (usually in the form of a coffee or drink during the interview). However, as I started my research as a participant observer at the NGO’s programme deployments, I got to understand the per diem culture. Those accustomed to working with foreign organisations, and those working within the foreign organisations (in local branches for example) will expect per diems for taking part in workshops, round tables and activities; I realised there was even an informal monetary scale, and some employees factor these per diems in in their family’s budgets. It became increasingly apparent that I would have to follow these codes when undertaking my own research, particularly if I were to involve participants who were used to the NGO I was working with. Slightly before setting off for my independent field work (without the partner NGO), I shared these thoughts with my translator who was a young man having previously translated for other western women undertaking their PhD research. He confirmed that the practice was to give a small contribution to each person we would interview (TZS 2’000). Himself and other Tanzanian friends confirmed that this was a common practice that they would also follow, were they to ask for help or information from people they do not know. I definitely can follow the logic: I was taking time off people’s daily activities, and it seemed fair to show appreciation for the information I need so dearly for my PhD. It seemed a little less logical to do so with government employees for whom I expected this type of activity to be set as a job task (and so I usually did not make a gesture of this kind). The questions which came up from these practices were whether the monetary transaction which was often expected, and taking place, was impacting the interviewees I was reaching, and the answers I was retrieving. Were those who knew there would be a monetary transaction keener? Would this mean I interviewed those who were already familiar with working with NGOs? Did I receive responses formulated specifically considering my linkage with the NGO? If so, what did I miss out on? I considered these issues and tried to overcome some gatekeepers in order to access marginalised people, who were not regularly involved with donor programmes.


My PhD research is on the political ecology of water flows in the drinking and wastewater canals that exist to serve cities but also flow across many peri-urban and rural villages along their course. The field site is Gurgaon, a major city of North India adjoining Delhi. I look at how farmers in the villages located along the canals of Gurgaon are affected and negotiate the water flows especially for irrigation, and a complementary part of that research is looking at the bureaucracy of the Irrigation and Flood Control Department who manage the canal’s structure and oversee its flow. I am an Indian upper-caste/ class male who is not from the region (I am from East India) but hardly find my position disadvantageous. I am often asked my full name during interviews, and my surname which is a sure indication of my caste fits in with the identity of a researcher. The counter-factual of how a less- privileged positionality might have influenced my research is difficult to draw out, but I rather here dwell on a personal account of a research engagement. It is illustrative of how asserting your position of privilege is often a useful though uncomfortable component of research. Here I leverage my class and educational privilege in a way that went against my notion of research ethics while being unaware, at most times, how my caste and gender privilege are part of my everyday toolkit in accessing research sites and individuals.

I am outside the Irrigation Asst. Superintendent Engineer’s office, having just returned from the field. In my case, calling it the field was appropriate because hours ago, I was standing upon harvested wheat fields of jutting stalks, standing remnants from what was an ordinary harvest that year. I interview farmers and study their practices and institutions of water use from canals. It’s been a hot day and I was sweating through my shirt, lugging around my backpack, basically being in an unpresentable manner. That never hindered me in the farms though, I would like to think it was an advantage. I looked ordinary, possibly pitiable, to them and farmers would be generous with their time and food and often invited me into their homes for extended discussions on arrangements of water sharing in the village. In the Bureaucrat’s office I was a pestilence upon their time. After a few hours of being redirected around and waiting on closed doors with meetings, I would be turned away with polite excuses and asked to arrive on a later day. Though I might have scheduled appointments over the phone, a meeting or other would come up and someone would be warmly welcomed as if an act of God had occurred against my purpose. This continued for a few days and I slowly frustrated of my interest in studying the bureaucracy. I did manage some interviews but not nearly enough.

I took advice from a senior whose research involved interviewing the bureaucrats of a different departments in a different state. My mistake soon became apparent. The next time I went, I dressed up, took an Uber instead of a bus to the Irrigation office and had a new decent self-made business card announcing my involvement in a research project covering 3 sites across India, Nepal and Bangladesh, and funded by the Netherland’s Scientific Research Organization NWO. I actively projected the airs of a person whose time was valuable, switching to English in my introductions rather than the colloquial Hindi that served me very well in my research with farmers. It was a temperament of haughtiness that I wasn’t used to at all, and goes against, I think, the general ethos of academic research. It did predictably serve me well though. The Superintendent Engineer bestowed his grace upon me and soon I managed to do all my interviews, as well as got permission to join junior engineers in their patrol ride along the canals.

This episode highlights nothing especially shocking. It’s common sense that a well-dressed person is received better. But one should also consider that the dealings of the irrigation department is overwhelmingly with farmers and contractors/ labourers, and so being well-dressed or important should not be a requirement. I just remember being uncomfortable and keenly aware of my own role in shifting the power relations and exercising my privilege so blatantly. Especially when I was talking to the Superintendent Engineer for the greater part of an hour while farmers who had travelled a distance had to wait outside for their turn in voicing their grievances.


If you would like to continue this conversation or provide any feedback, please get in touch directly with Nathalie ( and Pratik (



McDowell, L. (1992). Doing Gender: Feminism, Feminists and Research Methods in Human Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 17 (4): 399-416

Patai, D. (1991) US academics and Third World women: is ethical research possible?, in Gluck, S. B. and Patai,  D. (eds) Women’s words: the feminist practice of oral history. Routledge, London. pp 13

Pile, S. (1991) Practising interpretative geography. Transaction of the Institute of British Geographers, 16: 458-69

Roy, A. (2003). City requiem, Calcutta: gender and the politics of poverty. Univ of Minnesota Press.

Searle, L. G. (2016). Landscapes of accumulation: Real estate and the neoliberal imagination in contemporary India. University of Chicago Press.

Stacey, J. (1988) Can there be a feminist ethnography? Women’s Studies International Forum, 11: 21-7

Westwood, S. (1984). All day, every day. Pluto. London