Cultural Production in the Confines of Theresienstadt: works in the Foyle Special Collections Library and the Wiener Holocaust Library

By Simone Gaddes and Madeleine Ahern

This blog is a collaboration between the Wiener Holocaust Library and the Foyle Special Collections Library at King’s College London, written by Madeleine Ahern (Librarian and Project Cataloguer at the Wiener Holocaust Library) and Simone Gaddes (Library Assistant at the Foyle Special Collections Library, King’s College London). Using items from the libraries’ collections, this blog explores the relationship between artistic creation and survival within Theresienstadt. Impetus for this blog comes from both libraries’ connections to Holocaust survivor and scholar HG Adler, as well as holdings of rare cultural and artistic works produced in Theresienstadt in each collection. We begin by introducing the vital work of Adler, as well as his connections to the libraries, and then discuss Theresienstadt’s place as a centre for cultural production in the midst of the horrors of the Holocaust. Following this, we analyse items from both library collections that allow for consideration of the complexities that surround studying art, music, theatre, and film produced in Theresienstadt as propaganda, but also as a means of survival.

HG Adler’s life and legacy

Both libraries hold a strong connection through the work and collections of HG Adler. Adler (1910-88) was a novelist, poet, eminent scholar, and survivor of the Holocaust. In 1941, Adler was sent to a labour camp in Bohemia before being deported to Theresienstadt with his first wife, Gertrud and her family. In the ghetto Adler wrote over a hundred poems and systematically collected materials that he would later use in his studies of the Holocaust. Adler was instrumental in saving Viktor Ullman’s Theresienstadt opera Der Kaiser von Atlantis via their mutual friend, Emil Utitz (1883-1956), a philosopher and the Librarian at Terezín. Adler’s own works were preserved by Rabbi Leo Baeck after he was deported to Auschwitz on 12 October 1944, having spent more than two years in Theresienstadt. Adler was ordered to an outlying camp; his wife refused to leave her mother and accompanied her to the gas chamber so she would not die alone. After the liberation, Adler returned to Prague in June 1945, where he helped develop the Jewish Museum before emigrating to London in 1947. He lived in London until his death in 1988. Adler became one of the first writers to describe and analyse the Nazi persecution of the Jews. His seminal work, Theresienstadt 1941-1945: das Antlitz einer Zwangsgemeinschaft, was completed in 1948 and published in 1955. It remains one of the most detailed and comprehensive studies of the inner workings of a single camp. After taking seven years to find a publisher, Theresienstadt was met with immediate success and was accepted by the German courts as legal evidence of the ‘Final Solution’.

HG Adler’s personal reference library is now housed in the Foyle Special Collections Library at King’s College London. The library is a unique and important collection of over 1,100 books, pamphlets and journals, many of which are extremely rare, and were placed in the Foyle Special Collections Library by the writer’s son, Dr Jeremy Adler, Professor Emeritus of German at King’s College London. The collection comprises research material Adler used for his Holocaust studies and represents the core of his life and work. The items in this collection range from early first-hand narratives and personal accounts of persecution and survival to rare wartime propaganda leaflets. An exceptional rarity within the collection is the picture book, Bilder aus Theresienstadt (1944?), which is the focus of a section in this blog.

HG Adler’s relationship with the Wiener Holocaust Library stretches back to just after the Second World War when Adler settled in London, just like the Library’s founder Dr Alfred Wiener and began academic research and advocacy work in the wake of the atrocities of the Holocaust. The two men maintained a close working relationship with Adler working freelance for the library and being involved with the Testifying to the Truth survivor interviews, as well as using the library as a reader while he researched and wrote Theresienstadt 1941-1945: das Antlitz einer Zwangsgemeinschaft. Evidence of the men’s shared understanding of the significant value of amassing a collection in London to document the Holocaust and in turn make these collections accessible to a wide audience is evident in a letter Adler wrote to Wiener on 25 May 1954 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Library’s founding. Adler wrote (translated here from the German) ‘I have now known this unique institution for over a third of that time (20 years), and you know me thoroughly as its grateful and always extremely inspired user.’ He went on to praise Dr Wiener personally for ‘your rich knowledge, your restless hard work and, even more, your great humanity… something unique has been achieved in our time.’ He concludes his letter with a wish that ‘the Library prosper and you as the founder can enjoy it in health and blessed activity for many years to come.’ Adler’s 118 letters to the Wiener Library and to Dr Wiener can be accessed in the Library as collection 3000/9/1/42. Today, the Library continues to actively acquire family paper collections, photographs, books, periodicals, pamphlets, and more, to continue the legacy of collection and preservation that Dr Wiener began in 1934.

Life in Theresienstadt

Theresienstadt was established by the Nazis in the town of Terezín, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (German-occupied Czechoslovakia) on 24 November 1941. As described by Rebecca Rovit, Theresienstadt has been referred to as a ‘ghetto’ and ‘concentration camp’ interchangeably by both historians and former inmates. For the purposes of this blog, we have chosen to refer to Theresienstadt as a ghetto, to convey its distinction as a segregated settlement for Jews. While the town of Terezín had been the residence of 4,000 people, some 35,000 people were incarcerated in Theresienstadt at any one time between 1941 and 1945. Initially, Theresienstadt was used to disguise the Nazis’ treatment of elderly and prominent Jews, with the ghetto being portrayed as a spa town for ‘retirement.’ This deceptive presentation of Theresienstadt could not be further from what those incarcerated there experienced. Conditions in the ghetto were extremely poor; food was scarce and living quarters were overcrowded. Prominent Rabbi and scholar Leo Baeck described the conditions as being so overpopulated that ‘each person was constantly bumping into and rubbing up against everyone else,’ which was not only claustrophobic, but also inevitably led to the spread of disease. Food was sparsely rationed, prisoners were provided with bread, soup and coffee each day. Initially, family and friends could send food packages to the ghetto for their loved ones, but as the war drew on and relatives disappeared, these dwindled. Of the 140,000 people who were imprisoned in Theresienstadt, 33,000 died due to deprivation, starvation or disease. The ghetto also functioned as a holding site for Jews in transit to extermination camps in the East. By the time the ghetto was liberated in May 1945, almost 90,000 Jews had been deported via Theresienstadt.

Prominent Jews in the fields of art, music, literature, theatre, academia and science formed a significant portion of the prisoner population in Theresienstadt. Culture thrived in the ghetto and acted as a means of escape and, at times, an act of resistance for those living in Theresienstadt. Some scholars have credited the cultural production central to Theresienstadt as enabling those imprisoned in the ghetto to ‘retain their humanity’ and survive longer than inmates in other camps (Massachusetts College of Art, 6). Turning to artistry offered those incarcerated a degree of hope, by allowing them to continue to ‘think of themselves as civilized human beings leaving messages for the future,’ (Massachusetts College of Art, 6). Although cultural production within Theresienstadt occurred spontaneously, it was quickly taken under SS control and exploited. Artist studios were formed and were run internally by those interned within Theresienstadt, although they had to report directly to the SS. The artworks produced by the studios were decided by the SS, and these included propaganda materials, as well as luxury items, such as copies of artworks they admired to furnish their lodgings. Alpine landscapes, for example, were popular and frequently produced. 

Cultural production in Theresienstadt served a broader purpose for the Nazis: many of the Jewish elite were incarcerated in Theresienstadt and the cultural activity of the ghetto acted as a showcase to the world to discredit accusations of maltreatment against Jews. Despite the control and regulations enforced upon cultural production within the ghetto, many artists sought opportunities to covertly produce their own art that documented their experiences in the ghetto. A significant body of work produced in Theresienstadt has survived through various means. Some were smuggled out by artists pre- and post-liberation, some were taken soon after their creation by the SS to furnish their homes or sell and others were later uncovered at the site of Theresienstadt. The primary sources that have survived provide not only a valuable insight into life in Theresienstadt, but also serve to document the work and lives of both those who survived and who were killed during the Holocaust.

The art of beautification and the Red Cross visit

Joseph (Jo) Spier was a Dutch-Jewish artist and illustrator who was deported to Theresienstadt with his family on 21 April 1943, several months after his arrest in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands for creating a satirical cartoon of Hitler. Prior to his deportation to Theresienstadt, Spier worked as an artist in the Dutch newspaper Der Telegraaf before he was fired in October 1940 on account of being Jewish. In addition to working as a prison labourer, Spier’s artistic capabilities led him to work for the Werkstätte für Kunstgewerbe und Gebrauchsmalerei (Workshop for Arts and Crafts and Utility Painting) within Theresienstadt. Spier was the leader of the Lautscher Werkstätte studio which produced a range of artworks, the majority of which were used to decorate the homes of SS officers or were sold outside of the camp. Work that the Lautscher Werkstätte studio produced about Theresienstadt portrayed the ghetto as a ‘a coherent, uniform vision,’ in which individuals were not depicted (Branson, 39). This stylisation of the ghetto is reflected in some of Spier’s work, who himself had significant involvement in the production of propaganda about Theresienstadt on behalf of the Nazis. Most significant were the propaganda film The Führer gives the Jews a city (1944), for which Spier documented what the crew shot with drawings, and is discussed later in this blog, and the illustrated commemorative album, Bilder aus Theresienstadt.

[‘Im Stadtzentrum’ in Bilder aus Theresienstadt (1944?) from the HG Adler Collection at the Foyle Special Collections Library]

Bilder aus Theresienstadt, or Pictures of Theresienstadt in a direct translation into English, is one of the most extreme examples of propaganda produced in Theresienstadt and is a valuable primary source for understanding the extent to which the true nature of the ghetto was concealed. The text features 18 hand-coloured lithographs, which depict an idealised and unreal version of Theresienstadt. Core to this work is the context surrounding its creation. External interest and scrutiny towards Theresienstadt began to increase following the deportation of 476 Danish Jews to the ghetto in October 1943. Rumours of the Nazis’ maltreatment and mass murder of Jews had spread by this point in the war, and the Danish Red Cross, the International Red Cross, and Danish Government pressured the Nazis into allowing a delegation to visit and inspect the ghetto. A visit from a Red Cross delegation was eventually scheduled for 23 June 1944. To facilitate the visit, the Nazis embarked on an extensive ‘beautification’ campaign within Theresienstadt. A route was specifically prepared for the delegation, with repainted buildings, freshly planted flowers and a newly constructed kindergarten. A football match was staged during the visit and cultural activities within the ghetto were highlighted. To reduce overcrowding, 7,503 Jews were removed from Theresienstadt and held in a special camp at Auschwitz in case the Red Cross delegation requested to visit Auschwitz itself. The delegation met with prisoners at Theresienstadt, who had been warned in advance of what to do and say. The Nazis aimed to portray the ghetto as favourably as possible: doing so would discredit rumours surrounding their treatment of Jews and would allow them to continue to use Theresienstadt as their ‘model’ ghetto. The Red Cross delegation was deceived and their reports did not reveal the true nature of the ghetto. The reports were, in fact, highly positive and favourably compared Theresienstadt to the rest of war-torn Europe. After the visit, deportations to Auschwitz and other camps in Eastern Europe resumed. To remove all evidence of deception, the prisoners who met with the delegation were deported and those imprisoned in the alleged Theresienstadt Family Camp at Auschwitz were murdered.

Bilder aus Theresienstadt was produced as part of a propaganda offensive to deceive the outside world of the true nature of Theresienstadt. The illustrations within the text create a portrait of a clean and quaint town. Spier’s drawings depict a series of vignettes of ‘life’ in the ghetto, including scenes from a leafy marketplace, a sophisticated coffeeshop, a well-stocked bakery, and even a colourful puppet theatre. Some of the illustrations are entirely fabricated. For example, there is no record of there being a puppet theatre in Theresienstadt. Other illustrations depict facets of the ghetto through the distorted lens of the beautification campaign. The illustration titled ‘Im Stadtzentrum’ (‘The town centre’) depicts a wide, open, tree-lined street with colourful building façades. The well-dressed townsfolk stroll along the street, some stopping to gaze into a shop window stocked with fresh laundry. Spier’s illustration depicts Theresienstadt as a clean and prosperous town. The figures drawn within Bilder aus Theresienstadt are all anonymous, therefore avoiding the depiction of individual expressions and experiences. The style aligns with other material produced in the Lautscher Werkstätte studio, maintaining a generalised and uniform manufactured ideal of the ghetto. Spier and other artists’ idealised depictions of Theresienstadt have been wholly contradicted by survivor accounts and other artwork produced covertly in the ghetto. Some of Spier’s other drawings themselves contradict his work in Bilder aus Theresienstadt, highlighting that the album was produced under duress. Ten copies of Bilder aus Theresienstadt were published (although only three copies are known to still exist) and presented to the Red Cross visitors and Nazi leaders as a souvenir from Theresienstadt. Interestingly, a copy of Bilder aus Theresienstadt was recorded to have been attached to the report filed by Dr Rossel, the Swiss member of the Red Cross delegation. The illustrations likely influenced Dr Rossel’s perception of Theresienstadt, whose report was organised into categories which frequently relate to the content of the drawings. Spier went on to survive the Holocaust, eventually settling in New York with his family. This copy of Bilder aus Theresienstadt was formerly owned by HG Adler and is now held in the Foyle Special Collections Library as part of the HG Adler Collection.

Artistic and theatrical production in Theresienstadt

Also in the artists’ workshop of Lautscher Werkstätte was Prague-born Jewish artist Charlotta Burešová, who painted numerous portraits of fellow prisoners during her imprisonment in Theresienstadt from July 1942 until May 1945. Earlier this year through a project to catalogue the artworks collection at the Wiener Library, I conducted provenance research into a portrait signed by Burešová. The work is a watercolour and charcoal depiction of Burešová’s fellow prisoner Jan (Hanusch) Fuchs, who leans on a table-edge dressed in a white shirt with a pink cravat and a black top-hat and looks just beyond the viewer into the middle-distance. Despite Fuchs’ healthy and well-dressed appearance, the barred windows in the background suggest something of the context in which it was made and the brutal living conditions of Theresienstadt. The original donation form for this portrait indicates that Fuchs is dressed for his lead role in the ghetto’s production of Carmen, which suggests that the rolled paper in his hand may be his script for the opera. Theatrical productions were a large undertaking in Theresienstadt and prisoners were permitted over time to direct and perform in them by SS overseers, Rebecca Rovit argues, as these productions ‘promoted Theresienstadt’s special status as a ghetto for the cultural elite.’ As Aaron Kramer argues, ‘the SS did encourage artistic production of an amazing variety – from cabaret entertainment to puppet shows to classical theatre,’ however they had preferred works ‘including Tosca, Aida, Carmen, La Bohème, and Die Fledermaus, some with simple piano accompaniment, some with orchestra and full staging’ (‘Creation in a Death Camp,’ Aaron Kramer, 181).

[Charlotta Burešová (1904-1983), Portrait of Jan (Hanusch) Fuchs, 1944, watercolour with charcoal under-drawing on paper, 35 x 28cm, A095, The Wiener Holocaust Library Collections]

This portrait of Fuchs in costume ready to perform can be read as both a nod to his successful musical career back in Prague, and also a record-keeping if not celebratory depiction of his continued pursuit of his career while imprisoned in Theresienstadt. These theatrical productions Rovit argues were initially ‘well-meaning attempts on the part of the ghetto’s Jewish administrations to provide emotional and intellectual respite for inmates.’ However, they ultimately served the ongoing Nazi propaganda effort too, as Theresienstadt was presented as a ‘model ghetto’ and was heavily misrepresented to the outside world. Studying artistic and theatrical productions in Theresienstadt is therefore nuanced, and this portrait can be used as a means by which to consider some of the complexities of artistic production in camps and ghettos. Art made in Theresienstadt, such as this portrait, can be read as containing many layers of potential meaning, such as art as record-keeping and memorialisation, as a means of maintaining personal and communal morale, as protest and challenge, as propaganda under duress, as a means of survival via an effort to prove ‘artistic worth’ to SS overseers, and as a continuation of one’s career pre-war and a desire to continue to hone one’s skills. Burešová dated this portrait of Fuchs August 1944, and transport documents from the International Tracing Service archive reveal that Fuchs was deported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz-Birkenau on 28 September 1944 where he was murdered on arrival. This means that Fuchs sat for this portrait just one month before his death. Many artists, musicians and actors in Theresienstadt were deported and murdered throughout the fall of 1944. According to Yad Vashem’s article ‘Transport Ek from Theresienstadt, Ghetto, Czechoslovakia to Auschwitz Birkenau, Extermination Camp, Poland on 28/09/1944,’ Fuch’s specific transport comprised men under 55 who were told they would be away for six weeks building a new labour camp, after which they would be returned to Theresienstadt. Of the 2,499 men on that transport, 2,027 would be murdered by the end of the war. This portrait survived and made its way to the Wiener Library collections thanks to Fuchs’ wife who was imprisoned alongside him and Burešová in Terezín. It was ultimately their relative who donated the work to the Library.

Music-making in Theresienstadt

A large corpus of music was not only performed, but also composed, in ghettos and concentration camps including Theresienstadt. As Shirli Gilbert writes, ‘most of the larger ghettos in Nazi-occupied eastern Europe established choirs, orchestras, theatres, and chamber groups that existed for periods of months or even years.’ Musical scores made in the camps that survive are important records of cultural production that exist alongside works of art, letters, clothing, and personal objects that prisoners protected and have made their way into Holocaust museum and library collections in the UK and abroad. The Wiener Library holds a copy of a CD (Collection 2178) with concert pianist Maria Garzón performing Viennese-composer Viktor Ullmann’s piano sonatas 5, 6, and 7, which he composed in Theresienstadt between his arrival on 8 September 1942 and his murder in Auschwitz in October 1944. Two of his children who he dedicated these sonatas to survived the Holocaust, as they were sent to Britain on the Kindertransport. Also in the collection are copies of scores of his first, second and fourth piano sonatas written before his deportation to Theresienstadt, as well as Collection 1365 which is comprised of Peter Kien’s writings, drawings and publicity materials relating to the opera Der Kaiser von Atlantis oder der Tod dankt ab written by Viktor Ullmann in Theresienstadt for which Kien wrote a libretto. While music-making in Theresienstadt was permitted for some, it was not an equaliser among prisoners, and as Gilbert argues, ‘the elite were also afforded far greater freedom than “ordinary” prisoners to engage in musical activities such as performance and composition.’ Additionally, music was only permitted insofar as it supported the larger propaganda effort of the SS in regards to Theresienstadt. Throughout rehearsals for performances, musicians would be routinely ‘decimated as performers were removed to Auschwitz,’ and, as Aaron Kramer writes, conductor Raphael Schächter, who led a choir which rehearsed Verdi’s Requiem for over a year, required special permission to keep his choir alive until the final performance date, after which the choir was deported the following day to Auschwitz on 28 September 1944. This was the very same day that Jan Fuchs, the sitter in Burešová’s portrait, was also deported there; he may also have been a member of this choir.

[Viktor Ullmann, Piano sonatas, Collection 2178, The Wiener Holocaust Library Collections]

Film-making and the work of Kurt Gerron

Nazi propaganda that presented Theresienstadt as an idyllic Jewish town also extended beyond printed materials such as Bilder aus Theresienstadt. In August 1944, Kurt Gerron, a German-Jewish filmmaker and director was commissioned by the SS to produce a ‘documentary-style’ propaganda film presenting Theresienstadt as a wonderful place to live. The film was made in an effort to convince the international community that Jews were being well treated and to hide the reality that it acted as a quasi-transit camp. The Wiener Library holds Gerron’s entire document collection relating to the production of the film, titled The Führer gives a city to the Jews, and the document collection is fully digitised and accessible in the Reading Room as Collection 1621. Papers in this collection include a typewritten shot-by-shot plan for the film, typewritten accounts of each day of filming, as well as extensive correspondence between Gerron and others regarding the logistical production of the film. Some of the proposed shots range from a child on a rocking horse, to Jewish prisoners at the bank handling ‘their money,’ as well as prisoners at the post office showing their packages being ‘freely’ sent and received. The plans for these shots emphasise the layers of calculated propaganda embedded in the film, manufactured in an effort to completely hide the true atrocities of Theresienstadt from international viewers. Everything depicted in the film, from ‘self-governance’, to the extent to which illness and disease was widespread in the camp was completely misrepresented. As Rebecca Rovit writes, this ‘bogus film…was the ultimate step the Nazis took to distort the promising reality of the Freizeitgestaltung culture of Theresienstadt.’ This collection of papers in the Library’s collection was preserved because Gerron entrusted it to a fellow prisoner, Dr Fritz Silten, prior to Gerron’s deportation to Auschwitz and murder in the fall of 1944. Silten survived the Holocaust, and later gave the papers to HG Adler, who then donated the collection to the Wiener Library.

 [Erster Drehtag, Mittwoch. den 16. August 1944, 1621/4/1, The Wiener Holocaust Library Collections]

Concluding remarks

The holdings related to Theresienstadt in both the Foyle Special Collections Library and The Wiener Holocaust Library offer insight into many aspects of the Holocaust and Jewish life in the 20th century and beyond. The art, music, theatre and films produced in the ghetto and now held in the library collections offer an opportunity for the study of the complexities that surround cultural production in the context of the horrors of the Holocaust. These unique and valuable cultural materials, preserved in both of our London-based institutions, enable the study and preservation of the legacy of those who lived through and were murdered during the Holocaust. We hope that, through this blog, we have commemorated the lives and work of the Jewish artists, musicians, playwrights and scholars who were interned within Theresienstadt.

Copyright statement: The copyright for Bilder aus Theresienstadt is not held by the Foyle Special Collections Library, King’s College London. An image from this work has been used respectfully for research purposes only.

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Primary Sources

Charlotta Burešová, Portrait of Jan (Hanusch) Fuchs, 1944, watercolour with charcoal under-drawing on paper, 35 x 28cm, A095, The Wiener Holocaust Library

Gavin Dixon, “Viktor Ullmann: Piano Sonatas Nos. 4,5,6 & 7: Maria Garzón,” CD information insert, Collection 2178/3/2, The Wiener Holocaust Library

Joseph Spier. Bilder aus Theresienstadt. Theresienstadt : s.n., 1944? [H.G.Adler Collection N8251.T37 SPI]

Kurt Gerrron: personal papers re Theresienstadt film, Collection 1621, 1942-1946, The Wiener Holocaust Library

Letter from H.G. Adler to Dr Wiener, May 25 1954, Collection 3000/9/1/42/6, The Wiener Holocaust Library

Transport card, Document Number 4987258#1, ITS Archives, The Wiener Holocaust Library, accessed 05/06/23.

Viktor Ullmann, Piano sonatas, Collection 2178, The Wiener Holocaust Library

Secondary Sources

Aaron Kramer, “Creation in a Death Camp” in The Model Ghetto: theatrical performance at Terezin (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,


Arno Pařík, “Art in the Terezín Ghetto” in Seeing through “paradise”: artists and the Terezín concentration camp. (Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts College of Art, 1991) [HG Adler Collection N8251.T37 SEE]

H.G. Adler, Theresienstadt 1941-1945: das Antlitz einer Zwangsgemeinschaft. (Tübingen: Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1955)

H.G. Adler, Theresienstadt, 1941-1945 : the face of a coerced community. Edited by Amy Loewenhaar-Blauweiss, Translated by Belinda Cooper, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

The Holocaust Explained, “Case Study: Theresienstadt Ghetto”. [] , accessed 17/12/23

Johanna Branson, “Seeing through “paradise”: art and propaganda in Terezín” in Seeing through “paradise”: artists and the Terezín concentration camp. (Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts College of Art, 1991) [HG Adler Collection N8251.T37 SEE]

Leo Baeck, “Preface” in Theresienstadt, 1941-1945 : the face of a coerced community. Edited by Amy Loewenhaar-Blauweiss, Translated by Belinda Cooper, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

Massachusetts College of Art. “Seeing through “paradise”” in Seeing through “paradise”: artists and the Terezín concentration camp. (Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts College of Art, 1991) [HG Adler Collection N8251.T37 SEE]

Peter Filkins. H.G. Adler : a life in many worlds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2019)

Rebecca Rovit, “The Model Ghetto: Theatrical Performance at Terezin” in The Model Ghetto: theatrical performance at Terezin (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999)

Shirli Gilbert, Music in the Holocaust (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005)

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “Jo Spier drawing of people arriving at camp”. [Collections Search – United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (], accessed 17/12/23

Yad Vashem: The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, “Transport Ek from Theresienstadt, Ghetto, Czechoslovakia to Auschwitz Birkenau, Extermination Camp, Poland on 28/09/1944.”

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