allan mazur 1986 – men place more importance on the physical activeness of women than women do on me,
vary greatly over time and culture
anorexia and bulimia – self destructive eating habits – some over adapt to reach ideal body image and enter into self destructive latin habits, starting themselves women to ‘match the ever changing ideal of feminine beauty’
countries with the most eating disorder https://www.eatingdisorderhope.com/blog/eating-disorders-world-overview
selected bits from this website
global impact of westernisation of culture
‘The first culture to be studied, with increased prevalence of eating disorders, was Asia. Immigrants began coming to Western countries, and studies were conducted on the immigrants and descendants prior to the 1990s. There were a handful of reported cases of eating disorders during this time and was rare.
In Japan however in the 1970s eating disorders becoming more prevalent, and by the end of the 20th century disordered eating attitudes and behaviors significantly increased among Asian youth (including Singapore, Hong Kong, Fiji, Pakistan, and Taiwan). Eating disorders in Asia suggest that eating disorders are not culture bound or specific, but more culture-reactive.
This is based on Westernization of fashion, beauty ideas, television, social media as well as industrialization and urbanization of Asia [7, 8].
The study of the significant and rapid increase of eating disorders in Asia takes into consideration the coinciding of westernization, cultural shifts, industrialization and urbanization. This includes shifts in population demographics, food supply, global economies, gender role shifts, and the traditional family structure changes .’
influence of media
When examining eating disorders on a global basis, this includes a look at Westernization media’s influence on perception of self. In Singapore, eating disorders have been increasingly common since the 1990s, especially body dissatisfaction. In a study in published in 2003, conducted by Lee, Pathy, and Chan (who published an 8 year study) looked at the development of eating disorders according to ethnicity, and found that 91.3% reported cases were female, and 8.7% were male [1, 8].
In Hong Kong eating disorders were also seen from the 1990s onward and showed features commonly associated with Western eating disorders were absent, such as body dissatisfaction. Typically individuals attributed their restrictive food intake to somatic complaints (i.e., bloating, abdominal pain, or just not hungry was termed “Non-Fat Phobic Anorexia Nervosa (NFP-AN)”.
These individuals also reported less bulimic symptoms and lower BMI. Since these studies in the 1990s, a decrease in non-fat-phobic Anorexia Nervosa (NFP-AN) have decreased and a more Westernized disorder of AN has developed, where sufferers, state a desire for thinness and high levels of body dissatisfaction [1, 7].
It is fair to say that the increasing rate of eating disorders, Japan has the highest rate of prevalence, followed by Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea. Then following are the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Vietnam . As these countries grow in industrialization and more global, eating disorders have risen with increasing dissatisfaction in body shape and size [7, 8].
In light of findings about top followed people, Americans hugely influential – social media
erotica market – consider beauty standards here find stats.
biggest pornographic markets probably US, permeation through – more pressure to emulate often unattainable images
Out of the top 10 highest earning companies in the porn industry, 8 are USA based, 1 Canadian and 1 Swedish.
On the assumption that the beauty market MIGHT be grounded in gratifying men, certain desrieable characteristics are perpetuated through male desire
21st century age of photoshop, victoria secret models. fashion markets
along with modelling and erotic industry and social media, this digital age harness’ ability to change how people look, editing involved in many pictures, in particularly ones portraying beauty create a naturally unattainable ideal.
‘Charles Darwin 1874 concluded from his rudimentary cross-cultural survey that men judge the beauty of women by widely varying criteria and that there is no universal standard of beauty with respect to the human body’
fashion companies – clothing used to cover up certain bits and accentuate others, tits tummy legs etc. – maybe think about top clothing industries