allan mazur 1986 – men place more importance on the physical activeness of women than women do on me,

vary greatly over time and culture


anorexia and bulimia – self destructive eating habits – some over adapt to reach ideal body image and enter into self destructive latin habits, starting themselves women to ‘match the ever changing ideal of feminine beauty’


countries with the most eating disorder

selected bits from this website

global impact of westernisation of culture

‘The first culture to be studied, with increased prevalence of eating disorders, was Asia. Immigrants began coming to Western countries, and studies were conducted on the immigrants and descendants prior to the 1990s. There were a handful of reported cases of eating disorders during this time and was rare.

In Japan however in the 1970s eating disorders becoming more prevalent, and by the end of the 20th century disordered eating attitudes and behaviors significantly increased among Asian youth (including Singapore, Hong Kong, Fiji, Pakistan, and Taiwan). Eating disorders in Asia suggest that eating disorders are not culture bound or specific, but more culture-reactive.

This is based on Westernization of fashion, beauty ideas, television, social media as well as industrialization and urbanization of Asia [7, 8].

The study of the significant and rapid increase of eating disorders in Asia takes into consideration the coinciding of westernization, cultural shifts, industrialization and urbanization. This includes shifts in population demographics, food supply, global economies, gender role shifts, and the traditional family structure changes [7].’

influence of media

When examining eating disorders on a global basis, this includes a look at Westernization media’s influence on perception of self. In Singapore, eating disorders have been increasingly common since the 1990s, especially body dissatisfaction. In a study in published in 2003, conducted by Lee, Pathy, and Chan (who published an 8 year study) looked at the development of eating disorders according to ethnicity, and found that 91.3% reported cases were female, and 8.7% were male [1, 8].

In Hong Kong eating disorders were also seen from the 1990s onward and showed features commonly associated with Western eating disorders were absent, such as body dissatisfaction. Typically individuals attributed their restrictive food intake to somatic complaints (i.e., bloating, abdominal pain, or just not hungry was termed “Non-Fat Phobic Anorexia Nervosa (NFP-AN)”.

These individuals also reported less bulimic symptoms and lower BMI. Since these studies in the 1990s, a decrease in non-fat-phobic Anorexia Nervosa (NFP-AN) have decreased and a more Westernized disorder of AN has developed, where sufferers, state a desire for thinness and high levels of body dissatisfaction [1, 7].

It is fair to say that the increasing rate of eating disorders, Japan has the highest rate of prevalence, followed by Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea. Then following are the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Vietnam [7]. As these countries grow in industrialization and more global, eating disorders have risen with increasing dissatisfaction in body shape and size [7, 8].


In light of findings about top followed people, Americans hugely influential – social media


erotica market – consider beauty standards here find stats.


biggest pornographic markets probably US, permeation through – more pressure to emulate often unattainable images

Out of the top 10 highest earning companies in the porn industry, 8 are USA based, 1 Canadian and 1 Swedish.


On the assumption that the beauty market MIGHT be grounded in gratifying men, certain desrieable characteristics are perpetuated through male desire


21st century age of photoshop, victoria secret models. fashion markets


along with modelling and erotic industry and social media, this digital age harness’ ability to change how people look, editing involved in many pictures, in particularly ones portraying beauty create a naturally unattainable ideal.


‘Charles Darwin 1874 concluded from his rudimentary cross-cultural survey that men judge the beauty of women by widely varying criteria and that there is no universal standard of beauty with respect to the human body’



fashion companies – clothing used to cover up certain bits and accentuate others, tits tummy legs etc. – maybe think about top clothing industries

todays meeting updates, and additional thoughts.

consensus of meeting today

question that we are going to argue for

To what extent is there US global dominance/ cultural hegemony within the beauty industry?

we’ve discussed beauty standards at length realizing that other than the US, the people with the highest following in other countries seem to perpetuate existing stereotypes, eg Emma Watson, Cara D, Adele – english rose type figures 

Russian, indistinguishable models etc

We need to approach our question as we would an essay. It is key to include Globalisation and interdisciplinary methods (we can do this is a number of ways, not just in adherence with our respective majors and minors.) such as stats etc for financial aspects of beauty companies.


The presentation needs an introduction (contextualizing the topic, engaging with scholarly dialogue)

the bulk of the presentation requires ‘visible case studies’ 1-3 that will reinforce and aid our argument.

(it is worth noting that as we have discussed instagram as fair amount, we can’t really use this platform as a case study in its own right, but rather use it as a tool to reinforce our case studies.)

and then a conclusion


  • make up companies, we found that amongst the top 5 worldwide, 3 are US based, which were Olay #1 worth $11.8 Billion, Avon #2 worth $7.9 Billion,(number 3 is l’oriel and is French) Neutrogena #4 $6.2 Billion.
  • worldwide celebrities, and the beauty standards they either create or reinforce.
  • fashion capitals – New York, London, Paris, Tokyo all of which are recognised as hugely influential cities not just socially. Clothing brands

these were the three that we came up with but there are others we can sub in remove, they all need to link up with each other in some way.

We might want to consider networths and following databses for these companies/ people.

All of this ties in with visual media, something i think we have all expressed interest in at some point or another. We should considering marketing and the visual elements, people they use, how other countries respond to Western advertisements and try to recreate them. We noticed in Pantene adverts in China, three hair colours are advertised (brunette, blonde and red) though Chinese woman at whom the advert is aimed will have predominantley black hair.

something to consider, just through case study ideas out here and we can come up with ways to back them up for our argument and how to study them and which scholars may have said stuff on them.


1st Meeting Notes

TAD Presentation

Globalisation D – WEEK 1 NOTES

  • The notions aesthetics of the human affect perceptions of beauty, capability and value.
  • Human aesthetics: is there a universal beauty standard? How has western cultural infiltration affected this, e.g.: the look of humans in Japanese cartoons / the scalloped eye.
  • Wealth: poor copy rich in certain ways, e.g.: ‘Britney’ as a name. Then rich copy poor in other ways, eg: fashion trends in tracksuits.
  • Health – perceptions of how people should look. In Ancient Greece, all men looked like bodybuilders, then during WW1 there was a perception in the UK that the rich, therefore influential people, were fat because they could afford to eat. Now he have anorexia in the fashion industry, size 0 models etc. Also, the male hipster movement running counter to common masculine traits, thinness, soft and painted hands and how this affects the perception of children growing up. This also runs counter to what some people may need: a person growing up poor cannot choose to look like this.
  • FASHION SHOWS – including other cultures. But where does cultural appropriation start? :-/
  • How does LONDON compare to NEW YORK? Conceptions of global cities and how that’s different. Segregation, diasporas etc. Exactly the same in LA. Hubs of culture, is there a complete integration?
  • Is there a cultural perception already in place? Is there a narrative based in different camps that is difficult to challenge?
  • Body Positivity? Weight. Body dysmorphia and muscle dysmorphia.
  • How social media influences beauty standards nationally.
  • Kardashians.
  • Yoga. Cultural practises being watered down by commercialism.
  • ‘Aesthetics of the body in the global age.’



‘How are we to define the relationship between Hollywood and the British Film Industry?’

The juggernauts of the film industry today, surprisingly, are more British than many realise. Star Wars, Harry Potter, the MARVEL films, James Bond, Mission Impossible and Superman/Batman, the big-hitters at the worldwide box office, are all produced primarily or exclusively in the UK. So why is it that they are still classed as ‘American’ in many cases. What differentiates Star Wars from Harry Potter and the Inbetweeners Movie? This essay will aim to provide a framework for what can be considered a ‘British’ movie in the modern age, throwing out commonly held presumptions common in film criticism in favour of a new, empirical approach. The essay will recommend categories for defining these films, as well as making an attempt to analyse some qualitative traits ascribed to each category.

Brief essay abstract

My essay looks into cultural globalisation and how the diffusion of cultural ideas across the world may omit cultural diversity while promoting American culture.
I discuss the Americanisation of the film industry, in both the production and the consumption fields.
The essay utilises quantitive and qualitative research in order to examine the American dominance in the global cinema market.
I also discuss issues such as the strategy of Hollywood studios to create universal content that can cross national borders, the lack of real American representation, the power of distribution systems and the increasing popularity of transnational productions.

TAD Essay abstract: With a major in classical studies the notion of globalisation can be a difficult one considering the limited evidence in any particular case study. It seemed fitting however to consider an example of cultural integration which can easily be reflected in the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt, or, more fittingly, the ways in which religion might be used as a political tool for the purposes of cultural assimilation and propaganda. It is from the study of the cult of Serapis (a deity hybrid of Greek and Egpytian paganism) that I felt the clearest form of globalisation could be recognised; given the importance religion plays in society even today. Though very little can be found on the cult practice, it is the motivation of employing such a branch of religion and how it echoes ancient globalisation. The intention of fabricating a religious practice for sociological and economic purposes, i felt, should be homed in on; and the various reasons and motivations of political propaganda and its derivative should be recognised.

Thought: though religion not integral to whatever our study will involve, perhaps it might be interesting to identify a mentality that lies deeply within our social mentality today or indeed, how we might be fed various social constructs and consequently, inadvertently internalise them when a higher political agenda might be being served. This idea is dangerously close to something conspiracy theory-esque, however last year in SPA, we learnt one week about ‘nudging’ etc. I’m sure there is something about our social mentality which exists solely on pre-existing social constructs which, just as in Ptolemaic Egypt and even 100 or so years ago would be completely different (e.g. racism, homosexuality, attitudes to women) and within the ‘norm’ of social thought.

I’m sort of firing a lot into the ether here, but just getting some ideas out there, I wasn’t at the group session the other day so am not completely sure what was said, but if people are interested in film or something maybe there is something relevant in what I have said.