Utility Imperialism v. Liberal Imperialism

In this post I will discuss the contrast between Chinese and Anglo-American Imperialism and its implications in both development and politics.

Aside from imitating American business and development strategies like we saw in the cases of Huawei & IBM tech centres in Africa, Huawei also practices China’s famous ‘no-strings attached’ policy when doing business abroad. One big example is the telecom deal between Huawei, ZTE and the Ethiopian government. It is an $800 million deal that aims to expand the country’s mobile phone and internet infrastructure. Here we can see how China specialises in providing utility to foreign countries and in this way perpetuates its imperialism.

No strings attached, providing infrastructure  – utility imperialism & critics

But it draws attention that the Ethiopian telecom business is state owned and Ethiopia has refused to liberalise its telecom industry, critiques have said this Huawei and ZTE deal further ruled out the chance of liberalising Ethiopia’s economy.

“The deal with Huawei and ZTE will preserve Ethiopia’s state dominance and further put off the opening up of one of Africa’s largest economies. ”

This was back in 2013. Last year Xi has announced the strategy of one belt one road which is doing more business and investment abroad by providing infrastructure. Some have said it is similar to the post WW2 Marshall Plan America offered to Europe and China’s imperialist ambition is revealed.

“Some analysts have compared the One Belt One Road enterprise to the Marshall Plan. After World War II, the United States was such a strong manufacturing entity that it was forced to seek markets for its industrial products. The Marshall Plan required that aid to Europe involve a quid pro quo of U.S. investment and imports.”

On the other hand, 

“If Trump is too tied up with the Deep State and China leaves a bit of clean water, electricity, and road infrastructure – so be it.”

However in general China’s warns us how the West might not understand Africa better than anyone else – that might be a beneficial insight risen from the power rivalry between Chinese and American Imperialism, from a development point of view. One could say that developing countries and their people might want to seek their own way into democracies or whatever they want to and can achieve for their own good, ideally without Western intervention such as aids that come with patronising conditions and sometimes what locals see as hypocritical charities.

I have noticed, in recent years there has been a gradual shift in Western commentators’ judgements on Chinese business and developed approaches abroad – from mostly critical to curious and reflective nowadays.

“The fact that Western media sources consistently condemn China’s no-strings-attached attitude towards dealing with African regimes as proof that this is a disservice to Africa’s peoples actually demonstrates a certain lack of understanding that the West has of the worldview of many Africans.”

“If China is ultimately successful in bringing about a new surge in African economies, something the West has tried and failed to achieve for decades, then the global conversation on development will be rewritten. At the same time, China find itself one step closer to achieving the “Great Power” status it so longs for.”

Let’s see some local African’s opinions:

“As an African, I don’t really think they care. They’re here for business anyway. What i think many Africans like about them is that they don’t meddle in our affairs. Sorry to say this but the west treats Africans as objects of pity that need to be controlled like kids. Not that we don’t appreciate being helped but stuff like aid has done more harm than good here, in my opinion.”

“We rather work hard to buy the things we need than having someone give it to us as charity in the name of caring. Why subject myself to pity and charity when I have the ability to earn the money fairly?

Some Western professionals actually recognise this concern and have similar opinions too:

“These are fundamental shifts in thinking about what is achievable in the developing world and what the developing world wants to achieve for itself.”

“David Rieff, a contributing writer to The New York Times Magazine and contributing editor to The New Republic, says: “The problem with aid, in short, is that it sets itself up as the kind of know-all and end-all. …Aid, by definition, is outsiders telling people in a place how to do it, and telling them if they don’t behave satisfactorily — that is, the best practices that you now see in humanitarianism: if you’re not democratic, if you are not transparent, if you don’t do this, that or the other thing — then we will withdraw the aid. Well, if ever there was an example of any unequal form of relations, I would submit to you that that’s it, which is why, precisely, in depriving people of their agency, aid does more harm than good.”

“Foreign aid atrophies, and weakens, the state in Africa, and the only people who grow stronger are the donors: governments and NGOs. It damages the prospects for ordinary people to better their lives, and turns ordinary Africans into victims. Africans are hard-working people who like to have an enterprise culture. They are natural capitalists and do not need to be patronised by NGOs, who often have left-wing agendas.”

“Giving money can feed the hungry, and help the sick — but it does not free people from the institutions that make them hungry and sick in the first place.”

However

This would also beg the questions asking whether developing countries know the best about themselves and whether their people understand the significance of long-term development vision and the importance of issues such as human rights.

It is true that Western conditions might just be imperialist expansion in disguise in the name of liberalism and politicians might not really care about Africans. But you cannot say there aren’t indeed countless Western institutions, professionals as well as commoners that continuously offer genuine ideological and educational help and research in their pursuit of a better Africa and a better World. In direct contrast, China’s focus on business partnerships and providing utility and infrastructure might be seen as opportunist, self interested and short-visioned.

“I believe that certain types of health aid — offering vaccinations, or developing cheap and effective drugs to treat malaria, for example — have been hugely beneficial to developing countries.” (Ibid.)

“Humanitarian aid, mostly, does a lot of good. It saves lives and helps rebuild livelihoods. When you think of this, think 15 million starving people in the Horn of Africa in 2011 who would have mostly perished had it not been for aid.”

“I would say, though, it is important to remember, while all of that is true, for the overwhelming majority of the developing world, the story is good rather than bad. Of course, the stories we focus on are the stories of great distress, but in much of the developing world, where people would certainly like to be richer than they are and they would like to have more opportunities for their kids as they grow up as well, the last 30 years or so have been very, very good, and those countries have had more to do with that than we have.”

All in all,

African development: utility first or ideals first? Perhaps both can work side by side in pushing the development of Africa forward and it is also of great importance that cultural, regional, social and racial preferences should always be taken into account in tailoring particular development strategies and approaches.

Politics: But African development falls under the eyes of global powers like the US and China and might have been and will probably continue to suffer from their power contest and imperialist pursuit.

Apple & Netflix in Africa Research

Just a quick roundup of the Apple research I will be presenting, with a bit about Netflix at the end.

Apple, contrary to Tecno, has almost no strategy, and very little market share internationally.

Apple’s original strategy made it the most profitable company in the U.S.. They are selling the same thing as their competitors but making more money. However, it does not rule in the international market in any one of their core products, especially in competition with Samsung and Chinese companies such as Huawei.

Analysts had expected this California-based company to launch a phone with emerging economies in mind. Yet, nothing of the sort has occurred.

Apple is failing in the second-most populous continent of Africa because most of the smartphones bought in the recent large increase of smartphone sales are under $200. The GDP per capita of African countries is falling, making iPhones luxury items.

 

Research:

“Apple saw a slight decline in YoY growth of its share of the market in the face of stiff competition from Samsung and Chinese vendors such as Huawei.” (http://uk.businessinsider.com/apple-focuses-more-on-emerging-markets-2016-12)

“Apple’s original strategy took it to the top. It’s the most profitable company in the world, despite the fact it doesn’t rule worldwide market share in any core product. It just makes more money than any of its competitors selling the same thing.” (https://qz.com/781669/apple-is-punching-down/)

“Analysts expected California-based Apple to launch a phone with emerging economies in mind. So far that hasn’t happened.” (https://afkinsider.com/33748/apple-smartphones-are-lagging-behind-in-africa/)

“Africa, the second-most populous continent, is witnessing a tremendous increase in smartphone sales, but most of them are under $200 and this is why Apple is failing.” “Apple’s share in South Africa, one of the influential economies in Africa where consumers can afford iPhones, has dropped of late, which is bad news for Apple.” “Moreover, the GDP per capita has been declining in most of the African economies, which makes buying an iPhone a luxury decision that consumers are wary of.”(https://seekingalpha.com/article/3966349-apple-failing-emerging-market)

Netflix:

“This California-based company will face different challenges across various African markets, but they’ll have two big things in common in most countries: spotty internet connectivity and pricey data plans.”

(https://qz.com/589907/no-matter-where-netflix-goes-in-africa-it-will-run-into-these-two-problems/)

 

Film Studies Interdisciplinary Methodologies & its Limitations

Despite not researching films, film research methodologies were enabled during this process. A large part of film research is analyzing aesthetics and the importance of them. Clara did this with the emojis and I did this by deciphering the infographics. I was able to use a deconstruction film methodology by looking deeper into political and economic contexts. Instead of focusing on film, I focused on businesses. I was limited in my research methodology as aesthetics and deconstruction are used primarily to draw conclusions from seemingly insignificant things by looking further into the details. Whilst with researching IBM and Apple, it is harder to decipher a CEO’s intention as it is business and not art. The intention can be quite different.

Social Constructionism

Having used the sociological and psychological theory of social constructionism for a couple of times in our project, I finally came to summarise some key definitions and key terms linked to this theory. To simply put, social constructionists think that there is no absolute reality or truth, as subjective perceptions are all ‘constructed’ by external ‘reality’. Namely when we say people especially millennials have been ‘socially constructed’ by the use and spread of social media, and not to mention the news, ideas and opinions on social media. (Clara has done case studies on Facebook and Emojis.) Such influence is powerful yet ‘invisible’ and a gradual process which is convincingly a part of Anglo-American cultural (platform) imperialism.

“Social media feeds the society with a constructed reality instead of depicting it.”

SOCIAL MEDIA: How Reality is Constructed

  • Definition of Social Constructionism

“An approach to social psychology that seeks to study the ways in which people and groups create and institutionalize social phenomena by constructing their perceived reality. Socially constructed reality is interpreted as a continuous, dynamic process, with reality emerging from people’s interpretations.”

— Oxford Index, http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100515201

Key terms

“cognitive construction”
“symbolic universe”
“subjective reflection”
“social objectivation”

“One may and typically does live natively with a symbolic universe.”

— p. 104, Berger, Peter L., & Luckmann, Thomas (1966), The Social Construction of Reality, Anchor Books

  • Brainwashing

Furthermore the term brainwashing is directly linked to this idea, as it means how politicians control peoples opinions by making things up. It is also interesting to consider the shift from tv and newspaper brainwashing to social media brainwashing – older generations were more socially constructed by tv and newspaper but again, millennials are more exposed to social media brainwashing.

‘The term “brainwashing” comes from the time of the Korean War, when Americans speculated about the thought reform regime in communist China, and later the techniques used on the American POWs in Korea who went on to criticize the war, and even in a few cases to renounce the US and refuse to come home after the war was over. It’s such an evocative term that it caught on almost immediately as a way to describe someone’s views as rote, robotic, or even unthinkable.

We see a lot more of this rhetoric in the new millennium, with the advent of openly partisan cable news networks, and now with the phenomenon of social media “bubbles” where users often see largely the views of those who agree with them ideologically.’

We’re all a bit ‘brainwashed’ about politics

(Source: https://innerself.com/content/social/democracy/activism/13170-we-are-all-a-bit-brainwashed-about-politics.html)

Arguably imperialism normally is tied with negative implications and in fact much of our research has been focusing on those that come with the growth and expansion of technology and social media. However it is worth noting that technology and social media of 21st century that have been mainly developed by American companies have made contributions in easing our daily life and advancing our society. Where to draw the fine line between those benefits and Anglo-American cultural imperialism, neo-colonisation and ‘brainwashing’ comes down to individual cases but in any case a difficult question. It can be argued that in most cases innovations in technology and social media have not been designed to promote cultural imperialism, but many of them have been or can be manipulated to serve for different interests, especially in terms of politics (in our case, Anglo-American politics domestically and abroad – consider Facebook and Russian fake news during 2016 US election, and the latest news on Facebook and the Cambridge Analytical Data Scandal.

Cultural Imperialism, Anglo-Americanisation & Tech-Platform Imperialism

Some updates of key definitions that are essential to our project:

Cultural Imperialism

“Cultural imperialism is the economic, technological and cultural hegemony of the industrialized nations, which determines the direction of both economic and social progress, defines cultural values, and standardizes the civilization and cultural environment throughout the world.”

Anglo-Americanisaton 

“the hegemony of western culture and the process that is leading to the establishment of a common world culture”

– Matti Sarmela, “What is Cultural Imperialism?”, in Carola Sandbacka (ed.), Cultural Imperialism and Cultural Identity, 13-36. Transactions of the Finnish Anthropolological Society 2, Helsinki 1977, (in Finnish 1975)

Technology Imperialism

“It is clear that the notion of imperialism has gained a new perspective in the midst of the rapid growth of new technologies.”

“The panacea of technology may reduce imperialism and domination to vestiges of the past; however, technology will always be the reality of human hierarchy and domination (Maurais 2003, Demont-Heinrich 2008), and digital technologies have buttressed U.S. hegemony.

Platform Imperialism 

In particular, when the debates reach platforms, non-Western countries have not, and likely cannot, construct a balanced global order, because Google (including its Android oper- ating system), Facebook, Twitter and Apple’s iPhones (and iSO) are indices of the domi- nance of the U.S. in the digital economy. These platforms have penetrated the global market and expanded their global dominance. Therefore, it is not unsafe to say that American impe- rialism has been continued with platforms. As in the time of Lenin between the late 19th cen- tury and the early 20th century, there has been a connection between platform and capitalist imperialism. Platforms have functioned as a new form of distributor and producer that the U.S. dominates. Arguably, therefore, we are still living in the imperialist era.

“Therefore, it is certain that American imperialism has been renewed with platforms, like the old form of American imperialism sup- ported by politics, economy, and military, as well as culture.”

– Jin, Dal Yong (2013), “The Construction of Platform Imperialism in the Globalization Era”, TripleC, 11 (1): 145-172

Reflections on Our Disciplines

  •  History: Sean’s major

with introduction: helpful in providing background and context; defining important terms such as imperialism and looking at things in retrospect, etc.

with conclusion: connecting dots, the strong ability to look at the bigger picture as well as to summarise and reflect

  • Politics: Clara’s major, Sean’s and Miranda’s minor

the political nature of imperialism – studies of international relations/world politics/political economy benefitted our research significantly – especially in terms of theoretically supporting our research and reflection, etc.

close observance, critical and analytical thinking of global political/social/economic phenomenons and behaviour

  • Philosophy: Miranda’s major

knowledge and the ability to relate to and argue around political philosophy/theories related to imperialism/colonialism such as Liberalism, freedom, justice, Ethics, Marxist/Leninist theory of Capitalist Imperialism

contextual reading of political philosophy

how ideas matter

  • Film Studies: Eamon’s major

tbc

Presentation Outline

Section 1 –  3 mins

Introduction

Sean: history of colonialism, knowledge and context on cultural imperialism; globalisation, information, technology and social media in the 21st century and their with Anglo-American imperialism across the globe; why we choose China to study to be compared to and contrasted with Anglo-America; Africa’s significance

Section 2   –   5 mins

Anglo-American Social Media: Platform and Information Imperialism 

Clara: Facebook with Free Basics and Emojis: individualism – Anglo-American capitalist imperialism; IR economic power expansion=a kind of hard power; together with soft power: penetration of cultural imperialism. (different from Google and Jigsaws algorithmic neutrality and universal appliance)

Miranda: Socio, anthropological and psychological (by all means all political as well) theory of social construction: how people’s way of life and views are socially construed by cultural imperialism. In this case: millennials, social media and emojis. In addition the shift from media and press brainwashing to social media brainwashing.

Section 3  –  5 mins

Anglo-American Cultural Imperialism: Algorithmic Neutrality/

V. S.  Chinese Opportunism/Business & Capitalist Imperialism

Clara: Google and Jigsaw: algorithmic neutrality, to universalise Western Classical Liberalism or neo-imperialism, potential, hard to predict

Miranda: Tecno: selfies, tailoring, utility, success, business or Chinese colonialism, Capitalist Imperialism

Eamon: Apple, contrary to Tecno, no strategy, little market share

Section 4   –   5 mins 

Anglo-American V. S. Chn Tech Companies in Africa: similarities and differences 

Eamon: IBM in Africa, Huawei in Africa & similarities/consensus

Miranda: a different case: Huawei and ZTE in Ethiopia – no strings attached policy

Section 5  –   2 mins

• Sean

– conclusion

– methodology: an analytical overview of sources used by everyone (while playing the slides of our bibliography) & interdisciplinary approaches

– limitation of our research

Tecno in Africa- Selfies and Technology; Business or Chinese Colonialism

Clara talked about how American tech companies such as Google use algorithmic neutrality and I wanted to discuss Chinese capitalist imperialism as a counter example to Anglo-American “liberal” imperialism.

Overview: “brand penetration and market dominance in Africa”:

  • present in 35 African countries
  • 41.1% and 31.1% market share in Tanzania and Nigeria
  • has sold over 45 million mobile phones in Africa as of 2017
  • 25% – 40% of the African mobile phone market

Why it succeeds in Africa: 

  • advanced technology
  • relatively reasonable price: $120-280 (The annual average Kenyan wage is $1,200)
  • “most innovative designs”:

Four-sim phones

“Tecno also noticed that the African telecom market is highly fragmented, which means customers using different telecom operators need to pay hefty fees to call and text each other.

Given this situation, local people tend to use dual-sim phones to save money. Tecno pushed the envelope and introduced four-sim handsets, enabling customers to use up to four carriers.

Again this is not groundbreaking technology, but the minor adjustment made Tecno phones hugely popular in Africa.”

Design 

“The look is also crucial. Most global mobile brands have shifted toward simplistic designs, but Africans prefer sharp colors and shiny handsets. Tecno wasted no time in appealing to the local taste.”

More Tailoring for each different African country

“For example, in Nigeria customers wanted a mobile phone that had a longer battery life due to the electrical power shortage and in Kenya, customers wanted mobile phones with better picture quality. These requirements were looked and the Camon CX was launched (Tecno’s new product of 2017). “

Most interestingly – 

Specialising in making selfie camera for dark-toned faces 

“…the picture system of most mobile phones is based on white or yellow skin tones. When African users take selfies, the pictures are often either too dark or blurred.”

“To solve this problem, Tecno collected a large number of pictures taken by African customers and tweaked the picture function of its handsets based on the data. The superior selfie quality soon became a major selling point.

“The Camon CX uses a smart image sensor which composes of 16-megapixel sensors in the front camera ‘which detects light, captures individual images and converts the information into signals before forming the final image, resulting in selfies that are 30% brighter, making it the ultimate selfie phone.’”

Technology and the Selfie Culture in the 21st century 

“Generally globally people like to take photos of themselves and then share it on the social networke, we have been in the African market like Kenya for a long time and we do studies…one of the demands from consumers is Selfies and so because of this insight that really drove us to bring the latest visual technology in our latest smartphone..’ – Marketing Officer at Tecno

Techno clearly realises the contemporary global phenomenon of selfies. Having done thorough investigation on the African market, it realises the overwhelming selfie culture applies to Africa just as much as everywhere else across globe. However, the selfie cameras on all the mobile phones were designed for light-toned skin, namely Apple. Tecno is the first and mobile phone company that aims to provide selfie camera for dark-toned skin. What is more is that the technology market of Africa is still relatively underdeveloped and new compared to many other parts of the World, Tecno saw an opportunity and made use of its discovery in Africa. In contrast, Apple’s lack of specialised strategy in Africa and high prices have led its unpopularity in the African mobile phone market. By 2017, it had only 5.2% market share in Africa.

Attai Oguche, a Lagos-based deputy marketing manager for Tecno, told CNBC via telephone that Chinese companies are “good at spotting trends.”

They “adapt easily and come up with a product that everyone likes,” he said.

Oguche added that the “very conservative” European approach means companies risk falling short of their Chinese competitors.

A 21st century kind of (Chinese) colonialism/imperialism? 

“In big ways and small, China is making its presence felt across the continent.’

“China has also spread its influence in less visible ways.”

Clearly, Chinese mobile phone companies like Tecno, have really dived into the African market and it is interesting to consider their intentions and implications.

Business & Opportunism

It can be argued that they are in Africa for the profit. Africa is the fastest growing mobile phone market and Tecno benefitted from thinking outside the box in terms of some novel ideas such as selfie camera suited for dark skin and making 4-sim phones. The ideas of tailoring for different African countries and communities and specialising in the African market are to be considered as a huge success from a business point of view.

Neo-colonialism & Capitalist Imperialism 

On the other hand, regarding China in African in general, the term neo-colonialism has been raised very often.

But in the case of Tecno, it is hard to see how it neo-colonises Africa in terms of cultural intervention – it specialises its products for Africans and there is essentially nothing ‘Chinese’ about these phones apart from it is designed and made by a Chinese company.

Further, it sets out a sharp contrast against Anglo-American mobile phone companies such as Apple who do nothing like what Tecno does, and still sell their phones at a very high price for Africans. Is Apple only targeting on the richest Africans? Or it simply does not care much? It is hard to say who embodies neo-colonialism more.

However, it has been argued by Lenin that imperialism is spread across the globe with the help of capitalism and the division of territories are divided by the biggest global capitalist powers. Contemporary scholars have renewed Lenin’s theory by adding that technology has helped the growth and expansion of capitalism. Here we can see how Chinese tech companies like Tecno gradually capitalises and dominates Africa’s market, hence a rising global power of capitalist imperialism.

Dal Yong Jin (Jin, 2013) has argued that with the rise of new technologies in the context of globalisation from the end of 20th century, brought about a new meaning of imperialism, namely technology and information imperialism. Jin suggests like Lenin thought, cultural imperialism is spread with the help of capitalism.

“capitalism at that stage of development at which the domination of monopolies and fi- nance capital is established: in which the export of capital has acquired pronounced im- portance; in which the division of the world among the international trusts has begun; in which the division of all the territories of the globe among the biggest capitalist powers has been completed (Lenin,1917, 237, cited in Jin, 2013).

Moreover, the idea of capitalist imperialism in the 21st century is helped with capitalising technological products.

“Capitalist imperialism, which focuses on the flow of economic power across and through continuous space through the daily practices of trade, commerce, capital flows, labor migration, technology transfer, flows of information, cultural impulses and the like”.  (Harvey, 2003, 26f, cited in Jin, 2013)

Social and Racial Preferences 

In addition in a globalised and anglo-americanised world, Tecno’s approach to Africa and its success inspires us to rethink how much social preference and here more importantly racial preferences weigh in business and even development approaches.

“We read quite a lot about the economies of other countries. We read about their political situation. It’s more unusual for us to read about how they function as societies and what their social preferences are and how these might differ from those of neighboring countries and how there might be different social preferences within a given country.”

“The UN’s Efforts in International Development: Relevant or Not?”, David Malone’s speech at the Carnegie Council of Ethics in International Affairs, May 2015

https://www.carnegiecouncil.org/studio/multimedia/20150512-the-uns-efforts-in-international-development-relevant-or-not

 

Sources:

“Africa’s leading mobile maker, TECNO, is disrupting the global mobile market with its latest flagship duo”, Ventures Africa, Sep 2016

http://venturesafrica.com/africas-leading-mobile-maker-tecno-is-disrupting-the-global-mobile-market-with-its-latest-flagship-duo/

“African’s crave for selfies Inspires Tecno latest Smartphone”, PulseLive, March 2017

http://www.pulselive.co.ke/bi/tech/camoncxlaunch-african-s-crave-for-selfies-inspires-tecno-latest-smartphone-id6418602.html

“TECNO: China’s home grown smartphone manufacturer has quietly taken over the African smartphone market”, Kapron Asia, Sep 2017

https://www.kapronasia.com/asia-payments-research-category/item/895-tecno-china-s-home-grown-smartphone-manufacturer-who-has-quietly-taken-over-the-african-smartphone-market.html

“How a little-known brand conquered African mobile phone market”, Ejisight, Jan 2017

http://www.ejinsight.com/20170118-how-a-little-known-brand-conquered-african-mobile-phone-market/

“Why Africa’s Smartphone Market Still Dragging”, Tech in Africa, Dec 2017

http://www.techinafrica.com/africas-smartphone-market-still-dragging/

“China goes to Africa”, The Economist, Jul 2017 

https://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21725288-big-ways-and-small-china-making-its-presence-felt-across

“‘China is everywhere’ in Africa’s rising technology industry”, CNBC, July 2017

https://www.cnbc.com/2017/07/28/china-is-everywhere-in-africas-rising-technology-industry.html

Jin, Dal Yong (2013), “The Construction of Platform Imperialism in the Globalization Era”, TripleC, 11 (1): 145-172

Minutes of Meeting 18 March 2018

Present: Sean, Eamon, Clara & Miranda

UPDATED QUESTION:

How do technology and social media in the 21st century perpetuate

Anglo-American neo-imperialism?

AIMS of Meeting:

-create a visual for the presentation

-clearly state what the main argument of the presentation is, the sub-arguments of each section, and the limitations and conclusion of the entire presentation

-organise the presentation rehearse dates

DATES OF REHEARSALS:

-Rehearsal 1: Tuesday 20 March at 1PM

-Rehearsal 2: Friday 23 March 1PM

-Rehearsal 3: Tuesday 27 March time TBC

NOTES:

-question changed from colonialism to cultural neo-imperialism

  • Miranda is doing an outline on how we are going to talk through the presentation

TO DO:

!!! Everyone send Sean one or two sentences summarising the argument of your section before next rehearsal.

!!! Everyone should have a sentence or two about:

-the methodology they have used

-how your research is linked to globalisation

-how your section is linked to your major and minor

!!! Everyone must complete their slides BEFORE Tuesday

!!! Read other people’s posts and write comments

On TUESDAY 20 : we will time the sections of the presentation

Plan for our upcoming meeting 18th March

1. Firstly: Work out Sean’s introduction

• Sean will introduce our project, establishes context and talks about his own research: define colonialism/ imperialism and why we choose Anglo-American colonialism (limiting the scope) and how it is tied to the theme: “globalisation” in this era; why we choose China to discuss along with Anglo-American companies: the biggest opponent/contrast Anglo-American dominance

• Sean will also very briefly introduce everyone’s research?

*If so, C-M-E: each talks to Sean about how to introduce their part in one sentence.

2. Conclusion: a very important issue to be discussed among everyone in this meeting

• what is our overall conclusion i.e. the answer to our question? after working what our conclusion is (writing this done as our slide for conclusion), we need to discuss who can present this conclusion – perhaps one single person should do it, perhaps Sean to echo with his intro.

• reflection on methodology – perhaps an interactive one – everyone talks: how we approached their research e.g. primary and secondary sources, their own major or minor

• The limitation of our research: should we mention that in introduction or conclusion?

3. Connections

Everyone except Sean: discuss how to connect each part in order: perhaps C – M, M – E.

4.  Slides

Clara has started a Prezi slides doc where everyone does their own slides and will send Rosa the link for the access.

Note that we should include a bibliography page in the end to be presented along with the conclusion, when we talk about our methodology.

5.  Timing

Calculate the time for each part: S – C – M – E – Conclusion

*waiting for Rosa’s response regarding Eamon’s video/film studies but that either way, that will go to Eamon’s part.

6.  Rehearsals

Work out a time and date for rehearsal (ideally 2 rehearsals)

*all the research, slides and script: MUST be finished before rehearsals.

*** Note I am writing this plan with reference to this tick-list which we need to pay attention to (citing from notes from meeting with Rosa before reading week):

Tick-list for marks:

1. Globalisation: yes
2. Viable research project
– coherent
– proper question
– evidence e.g. good case studies – tying topics to large issues
– ‘literature review’
3. Interdisciplinary nature

– methods

– close reading/language/rhetoric

– quantities/stats
* pay attention to interdisciplinary approaches

+ also: critical and analytical thinking

 

Clara will follow up on the outcome of this meeting. I will write out the organisation of our presentation and send Rosa an email on Eamon’s part in relation to his film studies, he might do some research on hollywood as an example of American cultural imperialism across the globe.