Other Notes:



Place is one of the most important concepts in geography.

How is place important to our sensitivity to our perceptions of  conflict?


  1. Exhibited art is showcased in specific places that we have set aside to encounter art and creates a division between the art inside the space and non art world outside. Cresswell, T. (2015) Place, (Wiley Blackwell).


  1. “The modern gallery/museum space, for instance, with its stark white walls, artificial lighting (no windows), controlled climate, and pristine architectonics, was perceived not solely in terms of basic dimensions and proportion but as an institutional disguise, a normative exhibition convention serving an ideological function. The seemingly benign architectural features of a gallery/museum, in other words, were deemed to be coded mechanisms that actively disassociate the space of art from the outer world, furthering the institution’s idealist imperative of rendering itself and its hierarchization of values “objective,” “disinterested,” and “true.” – Kwon, M. (1997) One Place after Another: Notes on Site Specificity, (October) vol. 80, pp. 85-110.


  1. It is in this dissociation of space that makes the artwork less shocking…?
  2. This dissociation is part of the space in which the art is displayed. By paying for entry, we gain access to a space which contains the art. It is therefore within this bubble that we consume the art, but we are free to
  3. Within the space there is a performance that disengages us from the art.
  4. Freedom to come or go is key to our perception of conflict…


The place associations of the art are important to our reaction to the art. Cresswell gives the example of moon rocks, which look like they could be any old rock, but because we know they come from space we more likely look upon them with awe…


The Age of Terror exhibition is at the Imperial War museum, London. This sets the exhibition within the wider theme of showcasing war related objects and artworks but also directly means that to access the art, you must be in London, a Western Megacity.

anarchist geography

Some of the main points of anarchist geographies include Kropotkin’s 1902 Mutual Aid, the idea that cooperation between species is a stronger factor for social organisation than competition. Applied to geography, what does that mean? applied to community?

I will link that to the Kibbutz communitites in Israel during the presentation.

to what extent does a community’s ideology have an impact on its socio-spatial organisation and architecture?

Ideology and architecture in the Kibbutz

As a part of our group’s investigation of link between a patricular ideology of a community (country, city or any social group) and the infrastructure/architecture of that same community, I chose to explore how ideas of a Kibbutz influence its organization in the dwelling unit as well as the architectural style and its (quasi-)urban planning.

I found that the three main aspects of Kibbutz ideology, namely frugality, equality, and the rejection of private property, had immense impact on its architecture, especially that of the actual housing units. The article I took for basis for these findings can be seen here: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14036090510040313. It descibres the evolution of the Kibbutz dwelling and how the ideology as well as the architecture changed over time with the increasing infiltration of capitalist reality into the Kibbutz community.

My other main topic of research of the surprising influence of Bauhaus architecture onto the Kibbutz infrastructure and architecture. http://museumeinharod.org.il/en/kibbutz-architecture-without-precedents/ – an exhibition called “Kibbutz – Architecture without precedents” in the Israeli Pavilion in the 2010 Biennale, about the Kibbutz and its Bauhaus influences, which follows a number of architects educated in Germany who transferred the Bauhaus stil onto the planning of buildings in their home country. An interesting element of this is how characteristics of Bauhaus overlap and correspond to Kibbutz ideology, such as in the emphasis on the harmony between function and design, as well as simplicity.

Le Corbusier and Hitler’s Germania

On place:

“Architects design buildings. They also plan places” – T. Cresswell (2015) “Working with Place – Creating Places” in Place: An Introduction. p128

So if the “place” is already designed to convey some sort of ideology, it must also be meant to give off some impression, some sense of place that should match that ideology.


Ideology, but also history transcripted into urban planning (ex: street names, can be altered, but why? To show what side of the city’s/nation’s history?)

Le Corbusier’s architectural style reminds that of totalitarian urban planning: functional, pure lines and simple aesthetics…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2k9VKjfffs4 (3D reconstitution of Germania)

https://io9.gizmodo.com/10-failed-utopian-cities-that-influenced-the-future-1511695279 (check out numbers 2 and 5)


Not saying Le Corbusier was a nazi, but rather that ideas of grandeur and huge axis, socio-spatial organisation seem to have been big themes in 20th century architecture.

Week 1/2

Our question is going to revolve around the historical changes in British military uniform.

E.g. How has British military uniform changed since 1914? / over the 20th Century?

Our Majors include History, Geography, Politics and Philosophy
History: uniforms over time
Geography: Britain, as well as colonial nations, and home/away uniforms
Politics: Gendered uniforms? Difference in Ranks/roles.
Philosophy: The link to Community/World Service.

-Possible look to the UN army
-Changing depictions of military uniforms

Exhibitions at museums
Research @ Maughan
Online articles/archives