Here is a good summary of Samuel Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilisations’, a theory which has shaped International Relations, interpretations of events, and States’ immigration and integration policies: https://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/huntington-clash
This theory can help us understand contemporary approaches to immigration, more particularly since the events of 9/11. Especially considering the notable argument that Huntington’s theory is actually a ‘self-fulfilling’ prophecy by having influenced politicians and the media in their interpretation of events and of the world (see Bottici & Chaland, 2006)*
* Bottici, C. & Challand, B. (2006) Rethinking Political Myth: The Clash of Civilizations as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. Sage Publications: London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi.
“ Ask yourselves, Gentleman, what an Englishman, a Frenchman, and a citizen of the United States of America understands today by the word ‘liberty.’ For each of them it is the right to be subjected only to the laws, and to be neither arrested, detained, put to death or maltreated in any way by the arbitrary will of one or more individuals. It is the right of everyone to express their opinion, choose a profession and practice it, to dispose of property, and even to abuse it, to come and go without permission, and without having to account for their motives or undertakings. It is everyone’s right to associate with other individuals, either to discuss their interests, or to profess the religion which they and their associates prefer, or even simply to occupy their days or hours in a way which is most compatible with their inclinations or whims. Finally, it is everyone’s right to exercise some in uence on the administration of government, either by electing all or particular offcials, or through representations, petitions, demands to which particular authorities are more or less compelled to pay heed.” *
* Benjamin Constant. Retrieved from: Jennings, J. (2017) ‘Benjamin Constant on the Liberty of the Ancients and the Moderns’. in E Atanassow & A Kahan (eds), Liberal Moments: Reading Liberal Texts., 3, Textual Moments in the History of Political Thought, Bloomsbury Academic, London, pp. 28-34.
This abstract can help us in our reflection on what ‘citizenry’ entails ans its implication in regards with otherness.
Between January 7th and January 9th of 2015, 4 terrorist shootings occurred in the region of Paris. One of the attacks was directed towards the Jewish community and took place in a kosher supermarket in a Jewish neighbourhood of Paris’ suburbs. It was perpetrated by an islamist terrorist who pledged allegiance to ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham). Many reacted to the events, including Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. He published several tweets relating to the attacks, including one specifically addressed to the French and European Jewish community: “To all Jews of France, all the Jews of Europe, Israel is not just the place in whose direction you pray, the state of Israel is your home“ (Netanyahu, 2015). Netanyahu repeatedly called for mass Jewish immigration to Israel and more particularly in the face of terror attacks and anti-semitism as a whole. This tweet provides us with an opportunity to assess one of the main questions regarding Israel: is Israel, being the single Jewish nation-state, a unifying or dividing agent of the Jewish diaspora, a transnational ethnoreligious community? This has been a long-lasting question in the zionist ideology, founding idea of a Jewish homeland, which originates at the end of the 19th century. First, relating to Netanyahu’s association of religious tradition (“the place in whose direction you pray“) with national aspiration (“your home“), this essay will explore the place and the evolution of the role of religion and ethnicity in Zionism. Then, it will be possible to approach the link between the transnational Jewish community and Israel in the face of rising terrorism and anti-semitic acts in general, and to address the exploitation of such events for political purposes.