The channels of normative spreading.

Colonialism and the division of the world between the West and the Rest has been the common representation in geopolitics from the Discovery of Americas and, arguably, still continues today even though it has encountered some changes. The traditional representation of established countries and their colonies is visible in a number if manifestation such as, but not limited to, colonial exhibitions, the work of missionaries or development and humanitarian aid.

There are a number of scholars who have investigated such channels of normative spreading.

Edward Said, says that Orientalism is about the West’s discourse about the rest of the world (Orient). ‘European culture was able to manage and even produce the Orient politically, sociologically, militarily, ideologically, scientifically and imaginatively…’ (Said, 1979 p.3). Highly influential for colonial geopolitics and history of empires. Broader than military and diplomacy→ culture.

Samuel Huntington, Clash of Civilizations. He foresaw that the wars to come were to be fought between civilizations (cultural and religious identities). A cultural war: “The West and the rest”. Threats and dangers identified according to particular interests → the West has interests in the Rest.

Antonio Gramsci and his theory of hegemony: cultural hegemony applies between the West and the rest in the same way than between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat/ its normalizes a view of the world to maintain said hegemony.

James Derrick Sidaway, on popular representation of a land that leads to an overall view of a part of the world. Africa is brittle and desertic which has become synonym of hunger and poverty.

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