When using a machine learning model to make important decisions, like in healthcare, finance, or engineering, we not only need accurate predictions but also want to know how sure the model is about its answers [1-3]. CP offers a practical solution for generating certified “error bars”—certified ranges of uncertainty—by post-processing the outputs of a fixed, pre-trained base predictor. This is crucial for safety and reliability. At the upcoming ISIT 2024 conference, we will present our research work, which aims to bridge the generalization properties of the base predictor with the expected size of the set predictions, also known as informativeness, produced by CP. Understanding the informativeness of CP is particularly relevant as it can usually only be assessed at test time.

The most practical form of CP, known as inductive CP, divides the available data into a training set and a calibration set [4]. We use the training data to train a base model, and the calibration data to determine the prediction sets around the decisions made by the base model. As shown in Figure 1, a more accurate base predictor, which generalizes better outside the training set, tends to produce more informative sets when CP is applied.

Our work’s main contribution is a high probability bound on the expected size of the predicted sets. The bound relates the informativeness of CP to the generalization properties of the base model and the amount of available training and calibration data. As illustrated in Figure 2, our bound predicts that by increasing the amount of calibration data CP’s efficiency converges rapidly to a quantity influenced by the coverage level, the size of the training set, and the predictor’s generalization performance. However, for finite amount of calibration data, the bound is also influenced by the discrepancy between the target and empirical reliability measured over the training data set. Overall, the bound justifies a common practice: allocating more data to train the base model compared to the data used to calibrate it.

Since what really proves the worth of a theory is how well it holds up in real-world testing, we also compare our theoretical findings with numerical evaluations. In our study, we looked at two classification and regression tasks. We ran CP with various splits of calibration and training data, then measured the average efficiency. As shown in the Figure 3, the empirical results from our experiments matched up nicely with what our theory predicted in Figure 2.

[1] A. L. Beam and I. S. Kohane, “Big data and machine learning in health care,” JAMA, vol. 319, no. 13, pp. 1317–1318, 2018.

[2] J.. W. Goodell, S. Kumar, W. M. Lim, and D. Pattnaik, “Artificial intelligence and machine learning in finance: Identifying foundations, themes, and research clusters from bibliometric analysis,” Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, vol. 32, p. 100577, 2021.

[3] L. Hewing, K. P. Wabersich, M. Menner, and M. N. Zeilinger, “Learning-based model predictive control: Toward safe learning in control,” Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, vol. 3, pp. 269–296, 2020.

[4] V. Vovk, A. Gammerman, and G. Shafer, Algorithmic learning in a random world, vol. 29. Springer, 2005.

]]>At the crossroad between simulation and machine learning, digital twin systems are envisioned to bridge the theoretical guarantees of model-based approaches with the flexibility of data-driven methods. However, one major concern is whether insights drawn from the simulation can still apply to the real world. Embodying both the opportunities and challenges of simulation intelligence, we believe that ray tracing will drive the understanding of signal propagation in the next generation of wireless digital twins, while relying on machine learning to cope with the diversity of real-world materials and inaccuracies in the available geometry.

]]>PhD student in Machine Learning, Clement Ruah, has built a simulation of the Strand Campus at King’s to test how Wi-Fi signals are reflected between buildings – giving us insights on how to improve connectivity. pic.twitter.com/BCIVrQervd

— KCL Engineering (@kcl_engineering) April 18, 2024

Consider a wireless federated inference scenario in which the devices and a server share a pre-trained machine learning model, e.g., trained via federated learning. The server wishes to make an inference on its own new input based on such a pre-trained machine learning model. Note that the server has no access to the data; the data is only presented at the devices. This scenario is common in practice. For example, a personal healthcare system would first train the respective model via federated learning, without acquiring personal data from the end users; while upon achieving a trained healthcare model, wishes to provide useful *solution* to *new* users. We will assume that new users ask queries to the central server, while the general conclusion made in this article retains even for the case in which the new user has its own access to the pre-trained model.

However, depending on the quality of the pre-trained model, e.g., lack of data, the solution provided by the pre-trained model may yield wrong decisions. More importantly, such model is likely to yield *unreliable* decisions; see, e.g., our previous post ‘Is Accuracy Sufficient for AI in 6G? (No, Calibration is Equally Important)’. As reliability plays an important role in various fields including healthcare monitoring and autonomous vehicle navigation, it is important to find ways to make the federated inference reliable. *But how can we make the pre-trained model reliable as the central server has no access to the data at all?*

Recent work has introduced federated conformal prediction (CP), which improves the reliability of the server’s decision by utilizing available held-out local data at each device, of course, without central server’s access to such data. The goal of federated CP is to provide a guaranteed interval or set of potential outputs that contains the correct answer at a predefined reliability level [1, 2]. As a state-of-the-art solution, reference [1] proposed a quantile-of-quantile (QQ) scheme, referred to as FedCP-QQ, whereby each device computes and communicates a pre-determined quantile of the local losses. However, existing work assumed noise-free communication between the server and the devices, whereby devices can communicate a single real number to the server.

In our recent work, to appear in Transactions on Signal Processing, we study for the first time federated CP in a wireless setting, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Specifically, we introduce a novel protocol, termed wireless federated conformal prediction (WFCP), which builds on type-based multiple access (TBMA) and on a novel quantile correction scheme.

TBMA is a multiple access scheme that aims at recovering aggregated statistics, rather than individual messages [3]. By noting that federated CP also requires aggregated statistics across the devices, i.e., quantile, we have proposed to apply TBMA for WFCP. More precisely, as illustrated in Fig. 2, TBMA enables the estimate of the global histogram of data available across all devices without having to separately estimate the histograms of all devices. Specifically, each histogram bin is assigned an orthogonal codeword and the server can estimate the global histogram thanks to the superposition property of wireless communications. In this way, WFCP enables a direct estimate of the global quantile at the server without imposing bandwidth requirements that scale linearly with the number of active devices like FedCP-QQ. Rather, the communication requirements of WFCP are only dictated by the precision with which the signals are represented for transmission to the server, i.e., the length of each codeword.

The other key technical challenge tackled in our work is the derivation of a novel quantile correction approach that ensures the reliability of the set predictor despite the presence of channel noise.

We evaluate our proposed WFCP on CIFAR-10 data set over Rayleigh fading channels. We show here one of the results that plots the performance gains of WFCP in the presence of limited communication resources. In Fig. 3, we evaluate the performance of WFCP and our implementation of existing FedCP-QQ (DQQ) over wireless channels using finite blocklength information theory as a function of SNR. As SNR increases, both WFCP and DQQ maintain the target reliability level, while offering a decreasing prediction set size. Across all the SNRs, WFCP generates a more informative predicted set than DQQ, and it approaches the performance of the centralized CP. Please refer to our paper for more details.

[1] P. Humbert, B. Le Bars, A. Bellet, and S. Arlot, “One-shot federated conformal prediction,” *ICML* 2023

[2] C. Lu and J. Kalpathy-Cramer, “Distribution-free federated learning with conformal predictions,” *arXiv:2110.07661,* 2021

[3 G. Mergen and L. Tong, “Type based estimation over multiaccess channels,” *IEEE* *TSP* 2006

The control of dynamical systems is the backbone of modern technologies, ranging from industrial processes to autonomous vehicles. In many of these scenarios, systems must be controlled while satisfying a set of safety and reliability constraints with respect to the unknown evolution of a target process. For example, as illustrated in Figure 1, autonomous vehicles or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must plan their trajectory while maintaining a safe distance from other vehicles or obstacles. To this end, predictions about the future evolution of the system must be used. In this context, a primary challenge is to ensure safety and reliability in the face of predictions that are often uncertain.

To support the deployment of reliable control mechanisms for dynamical system, in our work we have recently proposed probabilistic time series-conformal risk prediction (PTS-CRC). PTS-CRC is a novel post-hoc calibration procedure that operates on the predictions produced by any pre-designed probabilistic forecaster to yield reliable time series prediction sets. As illustrated in Figure 2, PTS-CRC generates predictive sets based on an ensemble of multiple prototype trajectories sampled from the probabilistic model, supporting the efficient representation of forking uncertainties. This contrasts with previous solutions that apply Conformal Prediction^{[1] }to deterministic predictors (TS-CP)^{[2]}, which are bounded to produce compact prediction sets. Furthermore, sets produced by PTS-CRC can be calibrated to satisfy a wide array of reliability definitions, beyond the standard one of coverage.

Based on the reliability properties of PTS-CRC predictions, we devise a novel Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework that addresses open-loop and closed-loop control problems under general average constraints on the quality or safety of the control policy. The key idea is to derive the control by replacing constraints that depend on the unknown dynamics of the target process with those depending on the predictive sets output by PTS-CRC. The reliability requirements of PTS-CRC predictions translate into reliability requirements for the original control problem.

We apply PTS-CRC-based MPC to wireless networking problems, specifically focusing on a scenario where a base station must modulate its future power allocation based on the unknown evolution of channel conditions. For instance, we address the challenge of controlling transmit power to maximize the communication rate at an unlicensed user while adhering to a safety requirement, expressed as the maximum interference experienced by a licensed user. By employing PTS-CRC, we can replace the unknown system evolution with efficient multimodal predictive sets that more effectively capture multimodal channel evolution compared to TS-CP (Figure 3). As exemplified in Figure 4, PTS-CRC-based power control leads to power allocations that achieve a higher communication rate compared to TS-CP.

[1] Vovk, Vladimir, Alexander Gammerman, and Glenn Shafer. “*Algorithmic learning in a random world,”* Vol. 29. New York: Springer, 2005.

[2] Stankeviciute, Kamile, Ahmed M Alaa, and Mihaela van der Schaar. “Conformal time-series forecasting.” *Advances in neural information processing systems* 34, 2021.

[3] Zecchin, Matteo, Sangwoo Park, and Osvaldo Simeone. “Forking Uncertainties: Reliable Prediction and Model Predictive Control with Sequence Models via Conformal Risk Control.” *arXiv preprint arXiv:2310.10299*, 2023.

In our recent work, presented at IEEE ITW 2023, we study the more challenging setting illustrated in Fig. 1, in which the channel to be simulated varies over time. We adopt a worst-case formulation in which the channel variation is arbitrary and chosen by “nature” in a possibly adversarial way. To study this setting, we propose to adopt the framework of online convex optimization [4], which provides tools to track the optimal solution of time-varying convex problems. We specifically develop and analyze an online mirror descent algorithm over the space of positive definite matrices, yielding a matrix exponentiated gradient descent (MEGD) [5]. We prove that the regret of MEGD with respect to an optimized fixed program state is sublinear in time.

We conduct experiments by adopting the generalized teleportation processor (GTP), shown in Fig. 2, as the programmable quantum processor. GTP can simulate exactly the class of teleportation-covariant channels, modeling Pauli and erasure channels, and is operated here in an adversarial setting with time varying dephasing channels. Fig.3 plots the normalized regret as a function of time T. We observe that, MEGD is able to obtain a normalized regret that decreases sublinearly with T, hence approaching the performance of the reference program that would have been optimal in hindsight.

[1] O. Simeone, “An introduction to quantum machine learning for engineers”,

Foundations and Trends in Signal Processing, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 1–223, 2022.

[2] M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, “Programmable quantum gate arrays”, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 321–324, Jul 1997.

[3] L. Banchi, J. Pereira, S. Lloyd, and S. Pirandola, “Convex optimization of programmable quantum computers”, npj Quantum Information, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2020.

[4] F. Orabona, “A modern introduction to online learning”, CoRR, vol. abs/1912.13213, 2019.

[5] K. Tsuda, G. Ratsch, and M. K. Warmuth, “Matrix exponentiated gradient updates for on-line learning and Bregman projection”, Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 6, no. 34, pp. 995–1018, 2005.

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In our recent work, accepted for presentation at IEEE ICASSP 2023, we introduce NA-LOCCNet, as shown in Fig. 2, which improves average output fidelity while accounting for the channel errors.

Fig.3 plots average output fidelity as a function of bit-flip probability of noisy channel for a given input fidelity, whereas Fig. 4 plots the same quantity as a function of input fidelity for a given bit flip probability of noisy channel. In both the figures NA-LOCCNet performs far better than the state of the art protocols.

In our another recent work, published in Entropy, we have extended the NA-LOCCNet framework to the problem of quantum state discrimination.

[1] D. Deutsch, A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, and A. Sanpera, “Quantum privacy amplification and the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels”, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, pp. 2818– 2821, Sep 1996.

[2] X. Zhao, B. Zhao, Z. Wang, Z. Song, and X. Wang, “Practical distributed quantum information processing with LOCCNet,” Quantum Information, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2021.

[3] O. Simeone, “An introduction to quantum machine learning for engineers”,

Foundations and Trends in Signal Processing, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 1–223, 2022.

Servicing ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC) traffic typically calls for a pre-emptive allocation of resources in order to meet stringent delay constraints. A conservative static allocation of resources for URLLC may guarantee desired levels of reliability and latency, but this comes at the expense of other services, most notably enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), which cannot use the resources reserved for URLLC. A dynamic allocation of resources, while potentially more efficient, is made challenging by the stochastic nature of URLLC data packet generation. A promising solution is the adoption of predictors of URLLC data packet generation. Concretely, with reference to Fig. 1, a base station can deploy a predictor of URLLC data packet generation for the following frame, so as to guide the adaptive allocation of slots for URLLC packets, leaving the other slots available for eMBB users.

A URLLC traffic must hold two restrictions:

**Ultra-Reliability**– a portion of at least 1-α of all generated packets must be scheduled for transmission.**Low-Latency**– Each packet should have a unique schedule resource, no later than a predefined acceptable latency.

CP is a class of post-hoc calibration methods that transform standard probabilistic model into a set predictor that is guaranteed to contain the true target with probability no smaller than a predetermined coverage level [1]. Online CP alleviates the limitation of conventional CP of requiring a separate calibration data at the cost of providing time-averaged, rather than ensemble, reliability guarantees [2,3]. The adoption of CP in communication engineering was proposed in [Cohen2023ICASSP], which focused on wireless applications such as symbol demodulation, modulation classification, and received signal strength prediction.

In our new work [4], accepted at IEEE Signal Processing Letters, we introduce a novel scheduler for URLLC packets that provides formal guarantees on reliability and latency irrespective of the quality of the URLLC traffic predictor.

Fig. 2(a) illustrates the frame-based segmentation. Fig. 2(b) shows 4 URLLC generated packets and 6 pre-emptively allocated URLLC resources, yet the latest packet is not allocated a resource within the allowed latency. In contrast, Fig. 2(c) show an allocation that meets the constraints, even though the number of URLLC resources are smaller. This leaves a better portion for eMBB traffic.

The proposed method leverages recent advances in online CP, and follows the principle of dynamically adjusting the amount of allocated resources so as to meet reliability and latency requirements set by the designer. To this end, we adjust a threshold that changes between frames on the basis of a reliability condition, that controls how conservative the predictor of the next frame is.

We consider two mismatched predictors: the first underestimates the dynamic of changes the URLLC traffic, while the second overestimates.

Fig. 3 investigates of the impact of such mismatches between URLLC model parameter and ground-truth model parameter. For some parameters values of mismatch, the conventional scheduler does not hold reliability to the desired level, while for the other it may result in over reliability. The conventional scheduler is significantly affected by a mismatch between predictor and ground-truth packet generation mechanism, yielding either ill empirical coverage (below 1-α) or over coverage. In contrast, the CP-based predictor is able to flatten the coverage to asymptotically reach the long-term target 1-α.

.

Full details can be found at this SPL preprint [4].

[1] Vovk, Vladimir, Alexander Gammerman, and Glenn Shafer. “*Algorithmic learning in a random world,”* Vol. 29. New York: Springer, 2005.

[2] Gibbs, Isaac, and Emmanuel Candes. “Adaptive conformal inference under distribution shift.” *Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems* 34 (2021): 1660-1672.

[3] Feldman, Shai, Stephen Bates, and Yaniv Romano. “Conformalized Online Learning: Online Calibration Without a Holdout Set.” *arXiv *preprint arXiv:2205.09095 (2022).

[4] Cohen, Kfir M., Sangwoo Park, Osvaldo Simeone, Petar Popovski, and Shlomo Shamai. “Guaranteed Dynamic Scheduling of Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Traffic via Conformal Prediction.” To appear in Signal Processing Letters, [online] *arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.07675* (2023).

Artificial intelligence (AI) models typically report a confidence measure associated with each prediction, which reflects the model’s self evaluation of the accuracy of a decision. Notably, neural networks implement probabilistic predictors that produce a probability distribution across all possible values of the output variable. As an example, Fig. 1 illustrates the operation of a neural network-based demodulator, which outputs a probability distribution on the constellation points given the corresponding received baseband sample. The self-reported model confidence, however, may not be a reliable measure of the true, unknown, accuracy of the prediction, in which case we say that the AI model is poorly calibrated. Poor calibration may be a substantial problem when AI-based decisions are processed within a larger system such as a communication network.

A set predictor is defined as a set-valued function that maps an input to a subset of the output domain based on a data set. As illustrated in the example of Fig. 1, it depends in general on an input, and can be taken as a measure of the uncertainty of the predictor. The performance of a set predictor is evaluated in terms of coverage and inefficiency. Coverage refers to the probability that the true label is included in the predicted set; while inefficiency refers to the average size of the predicted set. There is a clear a trade-off between two metrics.

Given a probabilistic predictor, one can construct a set predictor by relying on the confidence levels reported by the model. To this end, one can construct the smallest subset of the output domain that covers a fraction 1 − α of the probability designed by the trained model given an input. For poorly calibrated predictors, this approach cannot satisfy the coverage condition for the given desired miscoverage level α.

In our new work [3], presented at ICASSP2023, we applied three different conformal prediction schemes for a demodulation problem:

**Validation-based (VB)**[1] – which partitions the available data set into training and validation sets. Uses the first set to train a model, and the second for calibration purpose.**Cross-Validation-based (CV)**[2] – which trains multiple models, each using all the available data set excluding one data point, that acts as a validation example. While increasing computational complexity, in general it reduces the inefficiency of the predictive sets.**K-fold CV-based**(K-CV) [2] – which cross-validates using a fold rather than a single point. K different models are trained using a leave-fold-out approach. This is a generalization of CV-CP set predictors that strike a balance between complexity and inefficiency by reducing the total number of model training phases to K.

Fig. 2 shows the empirical coverage level and Fig. 3 shows the empirical inefficiency as a function of the size N of the available data set D. From Fig. 2, we first observe that the naïve set predictor, with both frequentist and Bayesian learning, does not meet the desired coverage level in the regime of a small number N of available samples. In contrast, all CP methods provide coverage guarantees, achieving coverage rates at least 1 − α. From Fig. 3, we observe that the size of the predicted sets, and hence the inefficiency, decreases as the data set size increases. Furthermore, due to their efficient use of the available data, CV and K-CV predictors have a lower inefficiency as compared to VB predictors. Finally, Bayesian NC scores are generally seen to yield set predictors with lower inefficiency, confirming the merits of Bayesian learning in terms of calibration.

Overall, the experiments confirm that all the CP-based predictors are all well-calibrated with small average set prediction size, unlike naïve set predictors that built directly on the self-reported confidence levels of conventional probabilistic predictors.

Please see preprint of the ICASSP23 paper for full details.

[1] Vovk, Vladimir, Alexander Gammerman, and Glenn Shafer. “*Algorithmic learning in a random world,”* Vol. 29. New York: Springer, 2005.

[2] Barber, Rina Foygel, Emmanuel J. Candes, Aaditya Ramdas, and Ryan J. Tibshirani. “Predictive inference with the jackknife+.” (2021): 486-507.

[3] Cohen, Kfir M., Park, Sangwoo, Simeone, Osvlado, and Shamai, Shlomo (Shitz). “Calibrating AI Models for Wireless Communications via Conformal Prediction,” to appear in ICASSP 2023 [Online]. Available: https://arxiv.org/abs/2212.07775

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As depicted in Fig. 1, in a recent work to be presented at the IEEE International Conference on Communications, we consider a DT that autonomously learns a model of a wireless network, providing a safe sandbox environment for network optimization and analysis, while also enabling monitoring and prediction features. The main motivation for our work stems from the realization that, in real-world scenarios, it is challenging to transfer sufficient data to and from the PT in a way that “any information that could be obtained from inspecting the PT can be obtained from its DT”. In light of this, we propose to leverage Bayesian methods to learn a DT model that is aware of “what it knows” as much as it is aware of “what it does not know”; taking into account the epistemic uncertainty arising from limited PT-to-DT communication [3].

We consider a PT system made of a group of devices, referred to as *agents*, that attempt to communicate with a single base station (BS) over a shared multi-packet reception (MPR) channel [4]. Each agent is equipped with a limited-capacity buffer, and packet generation is taken to be correlated in-time and among agents. At any given time slot, each agent can take an *action* to decide whether or not to transmit a packet from their buffer, which can be received at the BS depending on the MPR channel dynamics. Upon packet reception, the BS transmits acknowledgement signals to the corresponding agents before the next time slot.

Agents cannot communicate with each other and each agent can only sense its local *state*, which contains information about its packet generation, buffer occupancy and BS feedback at a given time. Given the collective states and actions of all agents, the PT system evolves to a new state according to a *transition distribution* that is unknown to the DT and describes the packet-generation, buffer and channel dynamics.

During model learning (step 1 in Fig. 1), the DT leverages sequences of states and actions collected from the PT to learn a parametric *Bayesian model* of the transition distribution. As opposed to frequentist learning, which only keeps the most probable model parameter, Bayesian learning keeps a (possibly infinite) *ensemble* of models, where the probability of each model is given by a *posterior distribution*. Given that all state variables are discrete, we represent the transition distribution using a categorical model and learn the corresponding posterior using the conjugate Dirichlet distribution [3]. In order to lower the spatial complexity of the model, we leverage prior information available at the DT about state transitions like data-generation clusters, known buffer dynamics, and symmetry of the MPR channel.

A medium access control (MAC) protocol at the PT can be established by providing each agent with a *policy* distribution that maps the sequence of locally observed states and actions into a new action. Using the learned model, we can safely asses new policies in virtual space by defining a *reward* function that yields positive values for desired behavior (e.g. successfully delivered packets) and negative penalties for undesired behavior (e.g. buffer overflow). Policy optimization (step 2 in Fig. 1) aims at providing an optimal policy to each agent that maximizes the expected sum of future rewards. This amounts to a *Decentralized Markov Decision Process* [5] problem that we tackle using the COunterfactual Multi-Agent (COMA) algorithm proposed in [6], in which we periodically sample a new transition distribution from the model posterior during training.

After an initial model learning phase, the DT can provide monitoring features by checking whether newly received data fits previously observed transitions, or if it rather provides evidence of changed dynamics or anomalous behavior (step 3 in Fig. 1). To this end, we use a *disagreement-based test metric* that measures to which extent the Bayesian ensemble of models agree on the likelihood of the newly observed data. A large disagreement is taken as evidence of a large epistemic uncertainty compared to model-learning conditions, which in turn can indicate that the observation is anomalous.

We evaluate the proposed DT platform on a simulated scenario consisting of 4 devices distributed across 2 data-generation clusters. The MPR channel allows for the successful delivery of one or two simultaneous packets; while more than two simultaneous transmissions cause the loss of all packets. Each device is equipped with a buffer with single-packet capacity.

During policy optimization, we reward successfully delivered packets, while we penalize *buffer overflows*, caused by generating a new packet on an already full buffer. We analyze the performance of the policy trained inside the Bayesian model across different sizes of model-learning datasets, and compare it to a policy trained inside the corresponding maximum a posteriori (MAP) *frequentist* model, and to an *oracle-aided* policy that is trained using the ground-truth transition distribution.

From Fig. 2, we observe that, in regimes with high data availability during the model learning phase, both Bayesian and frequentist model-based methods yield policies with similar performance to the oracle-aided benchmark. In the low-data regime, however, Bayesian learning achieves superior performance compared to its frequentist counterpart.

To asses the performance of anomaly detection, we assume that an anomalous event occurs where a device is disconnected, resulting in an anomalous packet-generation distribution in the corresponding cluster. We compare the performance of the disagreement metric using the Bayesian model to a log-likelihood criterion using the frequentist MAP model for model-learning datasets comprising 20 and 50 transitions and report the results in the receiver operating curves (ROC) in Fig. 3.

Bayesian anomaly detection is observed to uniformly outperform its frequentist counterpart, achieving a higher area under the ROC in Fig. 3.

For a more formal presentation of our proposed Bayesian framework for wireless networks DTs and more details on the experimental procedure, please refer to our paper at this link and to the extended version at this link.

[1] M. Grieves and J. Vickers, “Digital twin: Mitigating unpredictable, undesirable emergent behavior in complex systems,” in Transdisciplinary perspectives on complex systems. Springer, 2017, pp. 85–113.

[2] W. Kritzinger, M. Karner, G. Traar, J. Henjes, and W. Sihn, “Digital twin in manufacturing: A categorical literature review and classification,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1016–1022, 2018.

[3] O. Simeone, Machine Learning for Engineers. Cambridge University Press, 2022.

[4] L. Tong, Q. Zhao, and G. Mergen, “Multipacket reception in random access wireless networks: From signal processing to optimal medium access control,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 108–112, 2001.

[5] F. A. Oliehoek and C. Amato, A concise introduction to decentralized POMDPs. Springer, 2016.

[6] J. Foerster, G. Farquhar, T. Afouras, N. Nardelli, and S. Whiteson, “Counterfactual multi-agent policy gradients,” in Proceedings of the AAAI conference on artificial intelligence, vol. 32, no. 1, 2018.

]]>Neuromorphic sensing and computing are emerging as alternative, brain-inspired, paradigms for efficient data collection and semantic signal processing [3]. The main features of this technology are energy efficiency, native event-driven processing of time-varying semantic sources, spike-based computing, and always-on on-hardware adaptation [4]. Neuromorphic processors, also known as spiking neural networks (SNNs), are networks of dynamic spiking neurons that mimic the operation of biological neurons. When implemented on specialized — digital or mixed analog-digital — hardware or on tailored FPGA configurations, SNNs have minimal idle and operating energy cost, and consume as little as a few picojoules per spike [5].

The integration of IR and neuromorphic computing was investigated in our recent works [6, 7], which proposed an end-to-end neuromorphic architecture for remote inference that replaces traditional digital blocks with SNNs as encoder and decoder.

With the aim of reducing energy consumption and facilitating online and always-on operation on specialized hardware, as illustrated in Fig. 1, we propose to leverage the synergy between IR transmission and neuromorphic computing to realize efficient ISAC systems. The neuromorphic ISAC (N-ISAC) receiver is able to leverage spiking neural network (SNN)-based processing to demodulate digital information and detect the radar signal.

As illustrated in Fig. 2, we consider an ISAC system in which digital communication and radar sensing leverage the same IR transmitted signal. In order to efficiently and simultaneously decode the digital data and detect the possible presence of a target at a known delay cell, the receiver processes the received signal via an SNN. Technical details can be found in our paper at this link.

We compare the proposed N-ISAC system with a conventional separate sensing and communications (SSAC) scheme, which divides the transmission slots into slots used for transmission and slots used for sensing. For SSAC, two SNNs are implemented at the receiver, one performing data decoding for the transmission slots, and the other responsible for radar sensing in the sensing slots.

To evaluate the performance of our system, we adopt the following performance metrics for data transmission and radar sensing: 1) Normalized test throughput, i.e., the ratio of the average number of correctly decoded bits over the total number of time slots; 2) Radar test detection error, i.e., the probability that the sensing decision is not correctly taken upon processing all time slots.

In Fig. 3, we demonstrate the normalized test throughput versus the radar test detection error for ISAC and SSAC. For the ISAC scheme, we vary a hyperparameter *β* dictating the relative weight in the design criterion in favor of communications; for SSAC we vary the fraction α of slots allocated to communications. As *β* increases, more priority is given by ISAC to communication over radar detection; and, similarly, as α increases, SSAC assigns more slots to communications. The performance of ISAC with an SNN having 10 hidden neurons is essentially independent of *β* for any 0.25< *β* <0.75. A first observation is that, for SSAC, there is a trade-off between communication and sensing performance levels caused by the slot allocation. A similar trade-off is also observed for ISAC when using an SNN with 6 hidden neurons. This is due to the limited capacity of the shared common hidden layer of the SNN. In contrast, when 10 hidden neurons are available at the SNN, ISAC is seen to optimize both data decoding and target sensing performance, obtaining significant gains over SSAC.

Fig. 4 illustrates how the SNN receiver can leverage the temporal sparsity of the IR signals to enhance energy efficiency. In this regard, we recall that energy consumption in an SNN is essentially proportional to the number of spikes produced by the SNN, given extremely low idle energy of neuromorphic chips [8]. The top panel shows the transmitted IR signal consisting of two frames of transmitted signals, separated by an idle frame of duration of 20 slots. We observe that in the idle frame, the spike count is significantly reduced, showing that the neuromorphic receiver can adjust its energy consumption to the activity level of the transmitter.

[1] S. Jeong, O. Simeone, A. Haimovich, and J. Kang, “Beamforming design for joint localization and data transmission in distributed antenna system,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 62–76, 2014.

[2] A. Nezirovic, A. G. Yarovoy, and L. P. Ligthart, “Signal processing for improved detection of trapped victims using UWB radar,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 2005–2014, 2009.

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