Decarbonisation in North America; an Empirical Analysis of the Economic Impact in Canada, Mexico, and the United States

By Pablo David Necoechea Porras

The world’s carbon emissions are beginning to be addressed to fulfil the
promise of the Paris climate change agreement. Keeping global temperature increase
to below 2°C will need global net greenhouse gas emissions to decrease dramatically. Nowadays, the world’s energy system is heavily based on fossil fuels: coal and oil account for about 30% each of total energy supply, and gas for another 20% or so. Low- or zero-
carbon energy sources together account for the remaining 20% . However, it is possible to take the carbon out of the world economy over the next years and do so with increased economic wealth in all countries. Decarbonisation has an economic value added.  Economies urge to decrease pollution and to be less materially intensive to have sustainable growth realizing that the low-carbon transition could generate economic growth.

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The ‘Petroleum’ of the 21st century: Water Security in the Face of Growing Population, Economies, and the Advance of Climate Change

By Benjamin Abbs
It is estimated by 2030 there will be a 40% shortfall in the global water supply. Clearly this presents a major resource supply challenge, but of equal significance is the ability of local water tensions to quickly mushroom to have national, regional, and global political  consequences.
While the quantity of fresh water in the world is not decreasing, population and economic growth is massively fuelling demand whilst global warming is increasingly affecting water distribution. In the past century, the world population has tripled, water use has increased six fold, and it is predicted that supplying a planet of 9 billion (population projection for 2050) would require at least 50% more water than we use today. Economic growth further increases the strain on water resources through pollution caused by industrial growth and improving living standards which encourage more water-demanding lifestyles and diets (the average hamburger takes 2400 litres of water to produce).

Renewable Energy Security

By Daniel Scholten
The geographic and technical characteristics of renewable energy systems are  fundamentally different from those of coal, oil and natural gas. Renewable energy sources are abundant and intermittent; renewable energy production lends itself more to decentral
generation and involves rare earth materials in clean-tech equipment; their distribution, finally, is generally electric in nature and involves stringent managerial conditions. These stand in clear contrast to the geographically fixed and finite nature of fossil fuel resources, their general reliance on large centralized production and processing installations, and their ease of storage and transportation as solids, liquids, or gases around the globe.

The Southern Gas Corridor: Heading into the Home Stretch?

By Amanda Paul and Ilgar Gurbanov

Security of gas supply is a priority for the European Union (EU) because it is critical to ensure that (1) supplies are not disrupted; (2) market can be competitive and (3) the EU cannot be blackmailed in foreign and security policy questions. Due to energy security concerns related to Russia’s tendency  to  use gas as a political tool and the need to improve gas pipeline infrastructure to help stranded European markets access new gas exports, the EU is increasingly committed to finding alternative routes/sources for natural gas. The Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) is one such initiative which opens a new and competitive route for Europe to import natural gas from the Caspian that Russia’s Gazprom does not control. However, while significant progress has been made (confirmation of the route in 2013 and groundbreaking for construction in Turkey and Greece in 2016), challenges remain, including local opposition along parts of the route and the emergence of Turkish Stream.

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