Dr Frank Umbach, Research Director of EUCERS, on Trump’s declared withdrawal from the COP21 Paris Agreement and China’s rather ambivalent climate protection policies in RSIS-Commentary No. 118/2017, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies/Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, 14 June 2017, 4 pp.
By Thomas Fröhlich
Brazil is the world leader in the use of biofuels in transport, and can look back at a successful history of introducing and expanding the use of ethanol in particular as an alternative transport fuel to substitute petroleum imports.
After the introduction of the government’s “Pró-Álcool” programme in 1975, Brazil was able to transform its light vehicle fleet to be almost completely ethanol-fuelled by the late 1980s, thereby substituting about 7bn barrels of petrol imports.
Due to high sugar prices, a phase-out of government support and the opening of the economy in the 1990s, Brazilians increasingly opted to buy foreign cars that we
re petrol-fuelled, resulting in a decrease of ethanol-fuelled cars and thereby ethanol consumption.
By Pablo David Necoechea Porras
The world’s carbon emissions are beginning to be addressed to fulfil the
promise of the Paris climate change agreement. Keeping global temperature increase
to below 2°C will need global net greenhouse gas emissions to decrease dramatically. Nowadays, the world’s energy system is heavily based on fossil fuels: coal and oil account for about 30% each of total energy supply, and gas for another 20% or so. Low- or zero-
carbon energy sources together account for the remaining 20% . However, it is possible to take the carbon out of the world economy over the next years and do so with increased economic wealth in all countries. Decarbonisation has an economic value added. Economies urge to decrease pollution and to be less materially intensive to have sustainable growth realizing that the low-carbon transition could generate economic growth.