13 Days: An Escape from a German Prison

While adding metadata to the album of photographs and ephemera of Brigadier John Alan Lyde Caunter (1889 – 1981) I became interested in the fact that during World War One he had escaped from captivity in a German prisoner of war camp. I would like his achievement to be brought to the fore through this blog as in 2017 it will be a century since he made ‘his great escape’.

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Our room at Crefeld camp (Caunter 92)

Captain (later Brigadier) John Alan Lyde Caunter of the 1st Battalion the Gloucestershire Regiment was taken prisoner during World War One by the Germans, captured at Gheluveld on the 31st October 1914 while on active service near Ypres. Upon capture he was confined in Crefeld prisoner of war camp and then with 400 other officers of differing nationalities moved to a camp at Schwarmstedlt, Hanover; eventually managing to escape in the summer of 1917.

During the journey to get back to England he met two other escapees, one of whom was Captain Fox D.S.O (an Irishman) of the Scots Guards. Together the two men managed to reach the Dutch frontier and safety – although during the last 24 hours they became separated. Upon their return to England on July 7th 1917 they were photographed together outside the Guards Club in the clothes they had worn during their hard won journey to freedom.

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Outside the Guards Club (Caunter 3 and Caunter 4)

On the 18th July 1917 both men were invited to Buckingham Palace for an hour long audience with King George V.

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Seeing the King (Caunter 15)

Captain Caunter wrote of his adventures in a book entitled 13 days an escape from a German prison, published in 1918, which also contained hand drawn illustrations by the author. The book is now out of copyright and can be downloaded free from various internet eBook providers for those that are interested in his story. The following is a review of the book copied from a newspaper cutting that was in an album of photographs and ephemera belonging to Caunter.

BRITISH OFFICER’S THIRTEEN DAYS JOURNEY TO FREEDOM

ESCAPE FROM GERMANY

Life and letters by J.C Squire published in Land and Water October 10th 1918.

“Captain Caunter was taken in 1914; he went to Crefeld and thence to Schwarmstedlt, in Hanover. His escape from the camp was extraordinarily ingenious and of the prolong nerve racking kind. He got on a top shelf in the parcels room, before the very eyes of a German; lay there, cramped and stifling, for hours; then stole out of the window while a sentry on each side turned his back. He crossed two rivers – there is a thrilling account of his wait by one bridge while the sentries carried on a conversation with two girls who seemed as though they would never go away and leave the men free to move or doze – and then, under a hedge, amazingly met two brother officers who had escaped after him. His chapters on the crossing of the Weser, the long walk along a railway track, and the final agonising wait in the marshes by the Dutch frontier, are wonderfully vivid; one’s heart stands still when a townful of dogs starts barking at him in the moonlight, and when Major Fox, an Irishman used to bogs, side-tracks the frontier guards into a morass. Major Fox slightly sketched is revealed as something of a Titan for strength and audacity. Captain Caunter’s exact wash drawings greatly elucidate his tales”.

Barbara Cornford

Sergeant Albert Rumbelow: the Royal Albert Hall connection

Albert Rumbelow

Albert Rumbelow

In 2014 I was working as usual adding metadata to the photographic images on the Serving Soldier database. The albums, paperwork and ephemera I annotated at the time were donated by the family of the late Major General Charles Howard Foulkes CB CMG DSO (1ST February 1875 – 6th May 1969) to the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, a leading repository founded in 1964.

While adding metadata and keywords to the images the handwritten notes written by Major General Foulkes caught my eye. Underneath a photograph of a not so youthful moustachioed Sergeant were written the words ‘Sgt Rumbelow 4 Platoon A company, 7th RB at Arras March 1916, DCM Gazette 6.6.16.’

I am not a researcher but curiosity caught hold of me and I decided to do a quick internet search firstly to find out what a DCM was (part of the learning curve when working with photographs of the Military so that I can give correct information) then to see if I could find out more about this rather more mature soldier who looked quite hauntingly tired as he gazed into the camera lens.

Upon entering his name, I was directed to a website dedicated to holding information about ‘fallen’ military personnel of Buckinghamshire http://buckinghamshireremembers.org.uk. Low and behold there was a record of Sergeant Rumbelow with details of his name, regiment, where he enlisted, where he died and the location of the memorial on which his name is displayed. I took it upon myself to send an email to the person who ran the website to ask if they had a photograph of Sergeant Rumbelow, in actuality they had all of his information but didn’t possess a picture of him. I forwarded a photograph and was met with a lovely response ‘I just cannot thank you enough for helping me to discover the full details of this brave man, I would never have discovered these extra details’.

My discoveries did not stop there: from the information I had gleaned I then knew that Albert Rumbelow worked at the Royal Albert Hall as a cleaner and hall attendant; he was one member of a quarter of the staff employed at the Royal Albert Hall who volunteered to fight during World War I, enlisting in 1914 at the age of 35 leaving behind a wife and four children. I contacted the organisers of an exhibition planned at the Royal Albert Hall in which I knew that Sergeant Albert Rumbelow was mentioned and asked if they would like a photograph of him. The response was they would because they did not have one.

In the summer of 1916 (we know it was in June) Albert gained the Distinguished Conduct Medal for ‘Conspicuous Gallantry’. His citation reads that he ‘exposed himself to machine gun and shell fire when going across the open to rescue a wounded man. Later he went under fire to fetch a stretcher’.

Albert was returned to England badly injured and died two months before Armistice Day in a military hospital in Ashford, Kent, at the age of 39. He was one of the few soldiers to be buried on English soil because the government had taken the decision not to repatriate the bodies of those killed in battle. His grave is located in the churchyard of St Peter Parish Church, Aylesford Kent and his name is alongside many others on the War Memorial at High Wycombe Hospital.

Barbara Cornford

 

Reggie’s Honour

An article in the Daily Herald in which Mr J Dixon Taylor recalled Reggie’s appearance at the Lord Mayor’s Procession of 1931 when he inadvertently scared some elephants (see King’s Alumni Official History of Reggie the Lion), led to one of Reggie’s many outings. The show organiser mistakenly referred to Reggie as a ‘toy tiger’ and greatly offended King’s students of the time. On the 27 October 1938 the engineering and medical students gathered a large crowd, headed by Reggie, and marched on the Daily Herald’s office. The crowd was reportedly greeted by the paper’s editor, who promised that the complaint would be passed on to the gentleman responsible for the insult. Following the incident the students wrote that ‘Reggie is once more on his perch, once again his tail wags with all its old ferocity, yet once more he has risen triumphant overcoming all his foes!’

Reggie the Lion marching on the Daily Herald.

This outing was recorded in the scrapbooks of David Leete which are held at King’s College London Archives.

 

Tameion orthodoxias

Theophilos, Bishop of Kampania. Tameion orthodoxias. En Kōnstantinoupolei: Typographeion Euangelinou Misaēlidou, 1859

Foyle Special Collections Library [Rare books collection BX320 THE]

by Lavinia Griffiths, Special Collections cataloguer

to_tpinlineThe Foyle Special Collections Library has recently acquired a rare edition of the Ταμείον Ορθοδοξίας (Treasury of Orthodoxy) written by Theophilos of Ioannina (ca 1749-95), bishop of Kampania in what is now the Thessaloniki region of Greece. As a bishop at a time when Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, in addition to his spiritual authority Theophilos exercised temporal power within his ‘millet’, or confessional community.

Taking the form of a dialogue, the Ταμείον Ορθοδοξίας belongs to a tradition of treatises aimed at instructing both clergy and laity in the theology, scriptures and doctrine of the Orthodox Church. One of its themes is the proper use of wealth. The text was first published in Venice in 1788; a second edition, also printed in Venice, appeared in 1804.

nativityinlineOur copy, advertised as a third edition, was published in Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1859 by Evangelinos Misaelidis (1820-90) a journalist, novelist and translator. Born in the city of Manisa in one of the Aegean provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Misaelidis was educated at the Evangelikos School in Smyrna before attending the then newly-established University of Athens. He became a
prominent figure in the ‘Karamanli’ press, employing the Greek alphabet to print Turkish language material for Turkish-speaking Greeks.

kaneinlineThere appear to be no other copies of this edition of the Ταμείον Ορθοδοξίας in libraries in the United Kingdom, or in any other library outside Greece.

It is of particular interest for its illustrations, 12 woodcuts of (mainly) biblical scenes; subjects include Cain and Abel and the Nativity, which are shown in this feature, along with the title page of the book.

Eric Garrad-Cole- The Undercover Italian

Eric Garrad-ColePhotograph of Mario Monti

In the photographs above you can see Wing Commander of the RAF Eric Garrad-Cole and Mario Monti. The keen eyed amongst you will notice not only a resemblance, but that they are, in fact, the same person. Garrad-Cole was universally known as ‘Garry’ throughout his life, though thankfully for this fugitive during his time in Axis controlled Italy, only a select few knew Mario Monti as anything other than Mario.

Garrad-Cole was an Italian prisoner of war (PoW), between 1940 and 1943, after the skilled bomber pilot was shot down over Libya in 1940. After many unsuccessful escape attempts he finally got away as Italy surrendered to the Allies and Germany occupied the country.

Still in Italy, following his escape Garrad-Cole joined the ‘Rome Organisation’, a group that set about helping other escaped Allied PoWs, for the remainder of the war. This is when Garrad-Cole disguised himself as Mario Monti- growing a pencil moustache and wearing glasses. It is up to you how convincing you find this deception, however, keep in mind his masquerade certainly was effective.

During the remainder of his time in Rome, with the help of other escapees, the ‘Rome Organisation’ and Garrad-Cole helped approximately 3000 PoWs. All this was achieved while under the constant threat of his identity being revealed and being discovered. Despite several close calls Garrad-Cole managed to stay undercover until the Allied victory.

After the War ended, having returned to Great Britain, Garrad-Cole was awarded the Military Cross (MC) in 1944 for his actions. In 1955, the Wing Commander turned author as he published ‘Single to Rome’ detailing his unique and fascinating tale.

By Adam Cox- Archives Assistant

[Information sourced from Times Obituary 2003 and accessioned materials]

Medical collections news

The Foyle Special Collections Library holds King’s College London’s and its affiliated institutions’ historical medical collections and we wanted to let Library customers, researchers and colleagues know about recent work we have been doing with them. Promotion and access to the collections is important, as they reflect King’s long and continuing history of medical teaching and research.

UK Medical Heritage Library project

Over the past year we have been participating in the UK Medical Heritage Library project. This Jisc funded project, administered by the Wellcome Trust, has seen 15 million pages from UK institutions’ 19th and early 20th century medical collections digitised for research purposes.

iopfirstcrateOur work has involved identifying, packing and sending 2,000 items to the Wellcome Trust to be digitised and made freely available online, as part of the project.

The logistics of the project have involved the employment of a Project Officer; ensuring the safe return and handling of rare items; and liaison with the Internet Archive who have undertaken the scanning of the books.

Read more about the project here in a recently published COPAC feature

IMG_0904Now all the books have been safely checked back in, (we’ve checked very carefully!) we have just made the records accessible through the Library catalogue. If you see a catalogue record like this one to the Household medical adviser it should provide a link directly to the digitised record…if it doesn’t, please let me know!

With special thanks to Victoria Parkinson (Metadata Coordinator) and Liz Serebriakoff (Service Development Coordinator) for their help with the technical aspects of this project.

Recently acquired material from the Weston Education Centre Library store

As well as putting the finishing touches to the UKMHL project, we have also been identifying Special Collections material that is currently in other Library Services locations. Generally, we are especially interested in pre-1900 books, items with significant provenances, those that are fragile, or those connected with the history of King’s.

While the image of librarians rooting around in stores for rare books has long been a staple in the library world, we do use the library management system and spreadsheet lists to identify material which needs to go into Special Collections. We are also happy to hear from colleagues who spot books that they think should be in Special Collections, or who receive information from a library customer to such effect, as has recently happened.

Following consultation of aforementioned lists and liaison with Pablo Paganotto (Senior Library Assistant at the Weston Education Centre) – thanks, Pablo! – we visited and rooted around in the store with a refined purpose. My colleague Brandon High, Special Collections Officer, describes one of the transferred items, below:

Among the material which the Foyle Special Collections Library has recently acquired from the WEC Store are several items with very interesting provenances. One of the most distinguished owners of these books is the surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912). Lister established the scientific basis of antiseptic surgery, and for clinical medicine in general.

The book which stands out is a copy of the 1898 edition of Sir Patrick Manson’s Tropical diseases, which bears the author’s inscription as well as Lister’s bookplate.  Sir Patrick Manson (1844-1922) was responsible for discovering the causation of malaria, and for founding the London School of Tropical Medicine.

Another book, Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton’s Pharmacology and therapeutics (1880) bears the author’s inscription. Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton (1844-1916) was a distinguished physiologist and pharmacologist who undertook pioneering research on the action of enzymes in the digestive system. He was also the first medical scientist to establish the connection between high blood pressure and heart disease.

Another item with an interesting provenance is Annales mèdico-psychologiques, which has the bookplate of the psychiatrist George Henry Savage (1842-1921), one of Virginia Woolf’s psychiatrists. The psychiatrist in her novel, Mrs Dalloway was modelled on him.

Purchase of a new acquisition

From our acquisitions budget we are also able to enrich the (medical and other) collections by purchase, and Brandon describes a recent acquisition below:

John Wesley. Primitive physic: or an easy and natural method of curing most diseases. Birmingham: printed by J Russell, 1823. Rare Books Collection RC81 WES

IMG_0906This is a very rare edition of a very popular work, which was first published in 1747, and which ran to many editions. This book was written at a time when many families self-medicated from choice or necessity. Its prescriptions avoid complicated pharmacology. Cold water bathing (a favourite of the 18th century), food (a diet of turnips for a month as a cure for scurvy, the application of toasted cheese to cuts) and exercises (rubbing the head for quarter of an hour as a cure for headache) feature heavily.

The book is informed throughout by a strong scepticism about orthodox medicine and medicines, but its underlying theoretical basis is humoural and Hippocratic.

Gifts gratefully received

We also recently received some items which were the gift of Rachel Paton, daughter of Dr Alex Paton, formerly of St Thomas’s Medical School, who died in 2015. With many thanks to Alan Fricker (Head of NHS Partnership and Liaison) for facilitating these acquisitions. Dr Paton evidently led an interesting life, being one of the first doctors to enter Belsen concentration camp in 1945.

The items formerly owned by Dr Paton are significant 19th century works on the liver, on which Dr Paton was an expert. These include:

A treatise on the structure, economy, and diseases of the liver by William Saunders. 

A practical treatise on the diseases of the liver and biliary passages by William Thomson 

If you have any questions about our medical or other collections, please feel free to contact us, or have a look at the guides to our collections 

New acquisitions from the Foyle Special Collections Library

The Foyle Special Collections Library has recently added the following new acquisitions to its holdings. Katie Sambrook, Head of Special Collections, introduces the first printed grammar of the Tamil language, while Brandon High, Special Collections Officer, writes about a publication on the subject of electricity in the 19th century.

Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg. Grammatica Damulica. Halæ Saxonum [Halle an der Saale]: litteris & impensis Orphanotrophei, 1716 [Rare Books Collection PL4753 ZIE]

gd_tpThe Foyle Special Collections Library is delighted to have acquired a copy of the first printed grammar of the Tamil language, compiled by the German Lutheran missionary Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg (1683-1719) and published 300 years ago in his native Saxony. Copies of the Grammatica Damulica do not often become available for purchase and this new acquisition complements our existing holdings of works associated by Ziegenbalg, most notably his translation, with Johann Ernst Gründler, of the New Testament into Tamil.

Printed in 1715, this was the first New Testament to be published in any of the languages of India. Ziegenbalg had been sent with a companion, Heinrich Plütschau, to the Danish possession of Tranquebar, at the southern tip of India, at the behest of his patron, King Frederick IV of Denmark. They were the first Protestant missionaries to India, arriving at Tranquebar in 1707. Ziegenbalg immediately set about learning Tamil, with a view to translating the New Testament into that language.

gd009With financial support from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK), this project came into fruition in 1715, with the printing of the New Testament in Tranquebar. Ziegenbalg also produced Tamil hymn books and catechisms and was instrumental in the establishment of schools and a seminary in Tranquebar. The tercentenary of his arrival in India was widely celebrated in that city.

The Grammatica Damulica was clearly aimed at potential fellow missionaries in Germany and elsewhere. Our copy appears to have belonged at some point to the library of the Société Asiatique in Paris and to have formed part of the collection of books and objects bequeathed to it by Édouard-Simon Ariel (1818-1854), a noted scholar of the Tamil language. An ink stamp on the title page indicates that the book was later the subject of an exchange with another unspecified library.

Édouard Hospitalier. L’électricité dans la maison.
Paris: G. Masson, 1887 [Early Science Collection: TK145 HOS]

ed_op152This lavishly illustrated and comparatively rare book is one of a series which Hospitalier wrote about electricity and its uses. It offers insights not only on the scientific development and technical applications of electricity but also casts light on the fascination of the 19th century with electricity’s potential and its consequences for everyday life. The book discusses the domestic applications of electricity, including lighting, alarms, telephones, clocks and electric games and toys.

This book complements our existing holdings on the subject. This includes the collection of Sir Charles Wheatstone, items from whose library featured in the 2015 Weston Room exhibition on the former King’s professor.

Visualising Medical History

I have recently been helping to co-ordinate academic input to a relatively new project supported by Jisc that is building innovative tools to help with searching and presenting data from the UK Medical Heritage Library (UKMHL) project. The UKMHL, which is supported  by the Wellcome Library and Internet Archive, is an ambitious initiative to digitise and provide online access to thousands of books on the themes of medicine and healthcare published during the ‘long’ 19th century (until 1914). The books are being made available to the public in a rolling programme from the Wellcome and Internet Archive websites.

mhl blog

Prof. Williams’ Complete Hypnotism

The books are drawn from ten UK research libraries, including King’s College London, and cover a huge variety of subjects including public health and sanitation, infection and epidemiology, nutrition and cookery, the history of disease and its treatment and psychiatry and psychology. Up to 40% of the books were published abroad, notably in the US, Germany and France, and this international dimension provides a fascinating opportunity for comparative study.

Ultimately, the UKMHL will provide access to some 15 million pages of OCR text and millions of embedded terms including the names of people, organisations, geographical locations, diseases, treatments and associated data such as medical equipment, and references to contemporary culture and society which will mean the resource is useful not only to medical historians but a much broader range of interested scholars including biographers, geographers and literary experts.

The visualisation project, which is led by the Knowledge Integration company in association with Gooii, is developing a range of new data visualisation tools such as graphs, timelines and maps. These will enable established scholars, students and other users such as journalists find what they need quickly from a huge corpus of material, whilst also supporting serendipitous browsing and providing the space in which the user can discover completely unexpected facts and relationships, not least between people, places and ideas.

My work involves the design and review of data sets that will help with the selection of presentation of the data, and its contextualisation, and to co-ordinate the contributions of a number of King’s and other medical historians, who are ensuring that the resulting visualisations are both accurate and useful.

The new visualisations will be available to use in summer 2016.

Geoff Browell

Special Collections internship

SCinternSara[1]By Sara Belingheri, Library Services staff

I started my course in Promotion and Protection of Italian Cultural Heritage Abroad in March 2015. The degree is awarded by the University of Parma through ICoN (Italian Culture on the Net), a consortium of Italian Universities whose mission is the promotion and diffusion of Italian culture and the image of Italy worldwide using distance-learning tools. Classes are held by both academics and professionals from partner institutions, such as the National Cinema Museum of Turin or the Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico.

Due to the vocational focus of the program, students are required to carry out an internship, during which they have to design a conservation or promotion project on material or immaterial Italian cultural heritage.

I decided to ‘play a home match’, interning at the Foyle Special Collections Library and to work on Italian early printed books. As Italian is not among the languages taught at King’s, I wanted to find a theme that might be of interest to a hefty share of our academic community, beyond linguistic knowledge. While browsing the Maughan bookshelves I stumbled upon Globalization in world history edited by A. G. Hopkins, and decided to develop the theme of archaic globalization.

The first step was then to become familiar with the daily work and mission of the Special Collections through induction sessions held by colleagues. After that, I had to identify Italian books on the catalogue and Liz Serebriakoff of Business and Systems Support (and an Aleph expert!) came to my rescue, providing some spreadsheets with records extracted through ARC.

Of the hundreds of items detected, roughly 300 were printed before 1700, among which I had to select a subset of books relevant to the theme; after this skimming process I identified almost a dozen of promising items, mainly from the Marsden and Foreign and Commonwealth Office Historical Collections.

Having mined for my raw material, I had to decide what to do with it. After consultation with my internship supervisor Adam Ray and the Head of Special Collections Katie Sambrook, we agreed on designing posters using images from selected books, with these to be placed on stands around the Maughan Library. Each poster would carry the bibliographic data of the Special Collections item featured in it, plus the details of an item in the Maughan Library collection on the same subject, therefore creating a link between the two. The posters aim to make the presence of the Foyle Special Collections more visible to students visiting the library and possibly stimulate their curiosity about its holdings.

Three posters where produced. The first one showcases the voyages of the Florentine merchant Carletti, who completed a journey around the world in the early seventeenth century. Due to the nature of its binding, digitizing the first printed edition of Carletti’s reports proved to be too risky. We opted to reproduce a map of South America from a beautifully illustrated 1548 Venetian copy of Ptolemy’s Geographia instead. The second poster features the title page of a 1514 surgery treatise by papal physician Giovanni da Vigo, in which he describes the first known outbreak of syphilis in Europe. The last poster focuses on the spread of printing. The chosen image is a detail from a polyglot Psalter printed in Genoa in 1516, showing columns of Arabic and Aramaic text.

As we had to find a balance between aesthetics and relevance of the content, many quite interesting items could not be featured in the posters, but might find their space in further projects.

A link to the Special Collections web page about the project and to the posters is available here

Please contact Sara Belingheri sara.belingheri@kcl.ac.uk for more information

Van Dieman’s Land

frontispieceBy Katie Sambrook, Head of Special Collections

The Foyle Special Collections Library has recently added the following item to its collections.

Benjamin Wait. Letters from Van Dieman’s Land. Buffalo: AW Wilgus, 1843 [Foyle Special Collections Library, Miscellaneous Collection HV8950.T3 WAI]

The frontispiece shown here depicts the author Benjamin Wait (1813-95) on board a convict ship.

Wait took an active part in the Upper Canadian revolt of 1837. He was captured by government forces and later sentenced to death for treason, but, following representations by his wife Maria, the sentence was commuted to transportation, and Wait was sent to the penal colony of Van Dieman’s Land (Tasmania).

Maria continued to campaign tirelessly for his freedom, but her efforts proved in the end to be unnecessary; Wait and a fellow Canadian patriot and convict, Samuel Chandler, succeeded in escaping from Tasmania on board an American whaling ship and reached the United States in 1842.

Sadly, Maria died shortly after the reunion with her husband. Wait never returned to Canada, spending the rest of his life in the USA.
TPvandiemen

Wait’s Letters provide a lively and detailed account of his part in the Upper Canadian revolt and subsequent exile in Tasmania.

The book also includes a number of Maria’s letters, documenting her efforts to secure her husband’s pardon.